what is organism in biology and types of organisms examples

What Is Organism

The word “organism” comes from the Greek “organismos”, or “Organon”, which means “instrument, implement, tool, organ of reason or concern”. It first appeared in English in 1703 (Oxford English Dictionary). Organisms are directly related to the term “organization.” The term organism may be broadly defined as an overall more-or-less stable functioning assembly of molecules that exhibits the properties of life. These organisms include all individual living things that can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, and maintain homeostasis (self-regulation).

Organisms are living things made up of many interrelated components and work together to achieve a common goal. Organisms come in many sizes, shapes and lifestyles, but they all share some traits in common. All organisms need food (nutrients) and excrete waste, grow, reproduce and finally, die.

The common characteristics found in many organisms are as follows:

1. Need nutrition/food
2. Breathe
3. Move
4. Grow
5. Breed
6. Sensitive to stimuli
7. Adapt, and there is a chemical composition
8. Get rid of waste

However, these characteristics are not universal. Microorganisms such as bacteria do not breathe but use other chemical pathways. Many organisms are unable to move independently and many organisms are unable to reproduce, even if the species are.

Characteristics and Types of Organisms

Living things are collectively referred to as organisms, as their bodies consist of one or more organs and organelles to carry out various processes in all life.

Unicellular Organisms

Unicellular Organisms

Organisms, which consist of only one single cell and are smaller and simpler when compared to multicellular organisms. Unicellular organisms carry out all the specialized functions in a single cell. Life, which cannot be seen with the naked eye, is a unicellular organism. Examples of unicellular organisms; Unicellular organisms include amoeba, bacteria and some forms of algae such as diatoms.

Unicellular organisms carry out all the specialized functions in a single cell. Life, which cannot be seen with the naked eye, is a unicellular organism.

Examples of Unicellular Organisms

The majority of microbes (including viruses) are unicellular in organization. According to the theory of evolution, unicellular organisms were the first to develop on Earth. Their origin dates back to 3.8 billion years ago. Each of them has several characteristic features, which help in adaptation to various environmental conditions. You can find single-celled organisms in every habitat, even in the most hospitable conditions.

  • Amoeba


Amoeba is also a protozoan, unicellular eukaryotic, found in almost all freshwater habitats. Famous for its unique mode of motion, it has no particular shape. In fact, the shape of the cell depends on the prevailing conditions. Whenever needed, the amoeba extends a prosthetic limb (pseudopodia), and uses it for phagocytosis and locomotion.

  • Paramecium


A slipper-shaped eukaryotic protozoan, paramecium consists of a single cell. Its body is lined by hair like minute cilia, which aid in locomotion and feeding. Paramecium reproduction is studied in detail, so as to understand the degree of multiplication. Under favorable conditions, it reproduces by asexual methods, while under stress, reproduction takes place sexually.

  • Bacteria


All of us have a brief idea about bacteria. Right from the formation of yogurt to causing infectious diseases, bacteria are present anywhere in the environment. They are minute and have various shapes (rod, round, spiral, etc.). Some strains of bacteria are adapted to harsh conditions such as deep in the Earth’s crust and hot water. They play an important role in the recycling of nutrients.

  • Cyanobacteria


Also known as blue-green algae (BGA), cyanobacteria are unicellular organisms. It has characteristics of both bacteria and algae, hence the name. Cyanobacteria resemble algae in that they both undergo photosynthesis for food production. While the prokaryotic nature of BGA makes it similar to bacteria.

In addition to these, examples include diatoms, Euglena, chlorella, and Chlamydomonas. In order to get an idea of ​​how these organisms look like, you can study the microorganisms in pond water. For biological experiments, collect freshwater samples from garden ponds in small bottles. Using eye drops, put a drop of water sample on the slide, gently place the slipcover over it, and observe under the microscope. You will find minute organisms moving randomly, most of which are single-celled organisms. Organisms, which are made up of many cells and are much larger and more complex as compared to unicellular organisms.

Characteristics of Unicellular Organisms

These single-celled or single-celled or unicellular organisms are specialized organisms. The number of unicellular organisms is not as much as multicellular organisms which almost include all living things. Unicellular organisms have certain characteristics. Some of the characteristics of these unicellular organisms are having a body shape that is invisible or microscopic or that can only be seen using a microscope, but sometimes there are also unicellular organisms that can be seen with the naked eye.

Part of a unicellular organism

Because it has been previously mentioned that these unicellular organisms are microscopic creatures, most of these unicellular organisms are a type of bacteria or protozoa or germs and their friends. Some examples of unicellular organisms are:

Multicellular organisms

  • have undergone cell differentiation, which perform special functions.
  • For example: nerve cells, blood cells, muscle cells, all perform different functions.
  • Most life, which can be seen with the naked eye, are multicellular organisms.

Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular Organisms

Organisms, which are made up of many cells and are much larger and more complex than unicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms have undergone the differentiation of cells, which perform specialized functions. For example: nerve cells, blood cells, muscle cells, all perform different functions Most life, which can be seen with the naked eye, are multicellular organisms.

A multicellular organism -includes all organisms of the kingdom Plantae and Animalia – fish, humans, tigers, horses, cows, dogs, sheep, snakes, whales, elephants, mango trees, roses, plants, herbs, etc.

Examples of multicellular organisms

A multi-celled organism – includes all the organisms of the kingdom Plantae and Animalia – fish, humans, tigers, horses, cows, dogs, sheep, snakes, whales, elephants, mango trees, roses, plants, herbs, etc. Humans are the best example of multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms are also known as ‘eukaryotes’ or ‘eukaryotic entities’.

Characteristics of Multicellular Organisms

  1. Having more than one cell (many)
  2. Organisms are large
  3. The composition and structure of the body is very complex and complicated
  4. Have different organs that perform different functions
  5. Has a separate nucleus and DNA

Although in general multicellular organisms are larger in size, there are also microscopic ones known as myxozoa. Some examples of multicellular organisms are humans, animals, plants, myxozoa, and all types of fungi.

Classification of Organisms

Organisms are grouped into five kingdoms based on:

  • Is there a nuclear membrane or not?
  • Unicellular (one cell) or multicellular (many cells)
  • The type of nutrition used by the organism (heterotrophic or autotrophic)

  1. Kingdom Monera
    *Has a primitive cell structure lacking nuclear membrane – prokaryotes
    *Most of this kingdom is unicellular (some exist in multicellular clusters)
    *Two main phyla are: Bacteria (heterotrophic) and Blue-green Algae (autotrophic)

  2. Kingdom Protista
    *Has a membrane around the cell nucleus – eukaryotic
    *Dominated by unicellular organisms
    *Two main phyla: Protozoa – heterotrophic animals (paramecia, amoeba), Algae – autotrophic plants (Spirogyra)

  3. Kingdom Fungi (Fungi)
    *Has a membrane around the cell nucleus – eukaryotic
    *Absorbs food from the environment (heterotrophic)
    *Arranged in multinucleated filaments e.g. bread molds (multicellular), fungi (multicellular), yeast (unicellular)

  4. Kingdom Plantae (Plants)
    *Has a membrane around the cell nucleus – eukaryotic
    *Multicellular organisms
    *Photosynthetic (autotrophic) organisms

  5. Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
    *This is the largest kingdom of the 5 kingdom classification
    *Has a membrane around the cell nucleus – eukaryotic
    *Digests their food (heterotrophic)

The four main phyla, namely:

  1. Coelentera
    *has only two layers of cells
    *has a hollow body cavity
    for example: hydra, jellyfish

  2.  Annelids
    *have segmented body wall (rings)
    for example: earthworms, sandworms

  3. Arthropods
    *have an exoskeleton (skeleton)
    *have jointed appendages for
    example: grasshoppers, lobsters, spiders, insects

  4. chordates
    *has a spinal cord
    *has an endoskeleton for
    example: sharks, frogs, humans, cats

Asexual Development In Organisms

In asexual reproduction, an individual can reproduce without the involvement of other individuals of the same species. The division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells is an example of asexual reproduction. However, asexual reproduction is not restricted to single-celled organisms. Most plants also have the ability to perform asexual reproduction. This asexual reproduction is divided into two, namely natural vegetative and artificial vegetative.

a. Natural Vegetative

  • Fission: Occurs in single-celled organisms, this organism will split into two equal parts for example: – Bacterial and plasmodium cell division (reproduction with double fission, the cell nucleus divides repeatedly and then each daughter nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm), this process is called amitosis

  • Formation of spores: formed in the body of the parent by way of cell division. If the environmental conditions are good, the spores will germinate and form new individuals. Example: mushrooms, moss, nails

  • Determination of Shoots: Shoots are in the form of small protrusions that will develop and form the same as the parent with a small size. Then these shoots can be released and when planted, grow as new individuals. Example: Yeast and Hydra cells (a type of coelenterate)

  • Fragmentation: When an organism breaks off, it splits into two parts, and the fracture can grow back into a new individual. This fragmentation depends on the ability to regenerate, that is, to repair tissue or organs that have been lost. Example: flatworms, thread-shaped algae

  • Vegetative Propagation: This vegetative propagation is given to seed plants. This process is when parts of the plant body separate, then that part will grow into one or more new plants.
  • Stolon: is a stem that spreads above the ground. along the stolons can grow wild shoots, and these shoots can be used as plant saplings. (Examples: puzzle grass, elephant grass and strawberry)

  • Live roots/rhizomes are stems that spread underground. Can be bulbous to store food or not. The characteristic of a rhizome is the presence of leaves that are similar to scales, shoots, internodes and internodes. (Examples: turmeric, ginger, galangal and kencur)
  • Shoots grow around the base of the stem: shoots that form clumps. (Example: Banana Tree, Bamboo Tree)
  • Wild shoots: occurs in plants whose leaves have meristems that can cause the formation of new shoots at the edges of the leaves. (Example: Cocor Duck Shoots)

  • Lapis tubers: are short stems that are underground. The bulbs are covered with paper-like scales. (Example: Onion)

  • Bulbs Stem: is a stem that grows underground, used as a storage place for food reserves, therefore we can see its large shape. In the tuber, we can also see shoots that will also form new individuals. (Example: Potato)

b. Artificial Vegetative

Reproduction due to assistance from other parties, such as humans;

  1. Cuttings: is the planting of pieces of plant parts, so that they can be grown into new plants. There are various kinds of cuttings, namely stem, leaf, or root cuttings. Stem cuttings can be done on cassava and betel plants. We can do leaf cuttings on cocor duck and begonia plants. and root cuttings can be done on breadfruit plants.

  2. Graft: is a reproduction by making the branches of the plant stem to take root. The way, part of the bark is removed, and wrapped with soil. Once wrapped, tie the package tightly. So that air and water can enter, we can give small holes in the package. On the grafted plant branch, roots will grow and are ready to be planted into new plants. Plants that can be grafted must have cambium stems. This grafting aims to produce the same plant as the parent. (example: mango, guava and rambutan plants).

  3. Crouching: is a plant propagation technique by subjecting plant stems to the ground in the hope that roots will grow. After the roots arise, the stem can be cut and moved to another place. (Example: can be used on your natural plants)

  4. Paste (grafting): attaching the buds of a plant to the stem of another plant. This grafting aims to combine two plants that have different properties. And in the end will produce plants that have two types of fruit or flowers.

  5. Connect (Enten): is to connect two living plant tissues, so that they both join and grow and develop into one combined plant. Connecting aims to unite two superior characteristics of different plants in order to produce the best plant quality.

c. Sexual Development In Organisms

Sexual reproduction or reproduction involves the fusion (fertilization) of two types of gamete cells, sperm (male gametes) and ova (female gametes). Individuals that are formed will inherit both parental traits that will give rise to prominent traits. The genetic combination of sexual reproduction increases genetic variation at the species level. Sexual reproduction produces new individuals that do not exactly match the parent. Based on where the gametes meet, reproduction is divided into;

1. Internal Fertilization

The fusion of male gamete cells and female gamete cells occurs in the female animal’s body. In this mechanism, the animal will be equipped with a copulation tool. This copulation tool will help deliver the meeting of gamete cells. The penis is a means of copulation in some males, and the vagina is a means of copulation in females. Male animals release millions of gamete cells through the means of copulation into the female reproductive organs. Then these sperm cells will “run” looking for the presence of an ovum, only one sperm can fertilize one egg. Based on the way of development of the embryo is divided into:

  • Egg-laying (OVIPAR)
    The embryo will develop outside the parent’s body with a shell structure. Embryo eggs will be removed from the mother’s body. This shell is composed of lime which protects the embryonic egg from water loss. Developing outside the body does not hinder the development of the embryo. Embryonic eggs have been equipped with yolk sacs (yolksacs) which are nutrients to supply the development of the embryo while in the shell. Animals have varying times in the development of their embryos, this can be indicated by the size of the eggs.

    The larger the size of the egg, the larger the yolk sac, meaning the longer the embryonic development. Heat is needed in the process of embryonic growth in the shell, therefore, the mother will do something to warm her young inside the egg. Some broods incubate their eggs (chickens, birds, other fowl) and some bury them in the sand or a pile of leaf litter (turtles, snakes, etc.). Some mothers will wait until their chicks hatch, and some leave their young.

  • Childbirth (VIVIPAR)
    The embryo develops inside the female parent’s body (womb). The embryo will get its food supply from the mother’s blood vessels through the placental connection. The embryo will develop in the mother’s womb during pregnancy, the time of which varies greatly from animal to animal.
    Example: most mammals, including humans.

  • Egg-laying (OVOVIVIPAR)
    A combination of egg-laying and giving birth. In this development, the embryo is stored in an egg without a shell in the body. These eggs are equipped with a yolk sac to supply the developing embryo. Until the appointed time, these eggs break inside the female’s body, and out of the female’s body. Example: some reptiles (lizards, etc.).

2. External Fertilization

The fusion of male gamete cells (sperm) and female gamete cells (ova) that occurs outside the body. The male animal will stimulate the female animal to spray the ovum, while the male animal will release the sperm cell in the watery area. Water media is needed to mediate the meeting of these two gamete cells. Therefore, this kind of fusion usually occurs in animals in the aquatic environment, such as fish and frogs. In addition, the watery area will protect the embryo eggs during their development, this is because the embryo eggs that are formed do not have a shell and require high humidity levels.

If these eggs are transferred to a dry area (land) it causes these eggs to dry out and will damage the development of the embryo. In some aquatic animals, the eggs will develop into ciliated larvae which will wander attached to the bottom of the water to form new colonies, or the sessile phase (attached to the bottom of the waters) for vegetative development. Examples are found in sponges, jellyfish, etc.

Distribution of Life in Organisms

Definition of Life Distribution

Dispersal or distribution of life is a component of population dynamics that ensures the long-term viability of populations and species of animals. Dispersal is the movement of animals from their place of birth to a new area to live and reproduce. Dispersal in dispersal is one-way without a return trip to the place of origin. The movement of animals back to their place of origin is called migration (Nybakken, 1988).

Every organism in its habitat is always influenced by various things around it. Each factor that affects the life of the organism is called an environmental factor. The environment has dimensions of space and time, which means that environmental conditions may not be uniform both in terms of space and time. Environmental conditions will change in line with changes in space, and will also change over time.

According to Mc Naughton and Wolf (1992) each ecosystem has different characteristics, due to species composition, community and distribution of organisms. The distribution in the pattern of space and time has two basic meanings, which are the result of the response of organisms with their adaptation to environmental heterogeneity in space and time and the organisms themselves act as modifiers or modify environmental heterogeneity.

Distribution pattern of living things in time

Most organisms are dispersed at several stages of their life cycle. They leave their home environment either permanently or seasonally for a more suitable habitat. Such migration is critical to the survival of individuals, particularly the young, the groups most vulnerable to dispersal, as there is no room for all in their home environment (Backus, 1986).

Migration movements are divided into three categories, the most common of which are repeated trips back that have been made by individuals. Such as daily or annual migration, short term or long term. Zooplankton in the oceans moves downward to deeper areas during the day and move to the surface at night. This movement occurs in response to light intensity. Earthworms annually migrate deeper vertically into the soil to spend the winter and return to the soil surface in autumn and summer.

The second type of migration is just one return trip. Such migration is common for some Pacific salmon species. Salmon hatch in the sea and then migrate to the river, then grow to maturity and return to the sea to reproduce and then die.

The third type of migration, for example in the monarch butterfly, migrates and does not return to the north but its descendants return to their place of origin. About 70% of the last generation of monarch butterflies in the summer move south for winter in the Mexican highlands, this journey spans about 14,000 km. From winter moving in January and arriving in the depths of South America in early autumn they start for a new generation (Sugianto, 1994).

Factors Affecting Distribution

Factors that affect the pattern of distribution of living things in time

  • Biotic Factors
    Represents, living factors, or related to life. Which includes biotic, namely humans, animals (fauna), plants (flora), fungi, protists and bacteria.

    Living things such as humans, animals and plants have a considerable influence on the distribution of plants. Especially humans with their knowledge and technology can spread plants quickly and easily. Urban forest is a type of forest that is more influenced by biotic factors, especially humans. Humans are also able to influence the life of fauna in a place by protecting or hunting animals. This shows that human factors affect the life of flora and fauna in this world.

    For example: forest areas are converted into agricultural, plantation or residential areas by logging, reforestation, or fertilization. In addition, animal factors also have a role in the spread of flora and fauna. The role of plant factors is to fertilize the soil. Fertile soil allows the development of plant life and also affects the life of the fauna.

    Animals also have a role in the spread of flora and fauna. for example: insects in the process of pollination, bats, birds, squirrels help in the dispersal of plant seeds. The role of plant factors is to fertilize the soil. Fertile soil allows the development of plant life and also affects the life of the fauna.

  • Abiotic factors
    are components that are not living or inanimate objects. Which includes abiotic components are soil, rock and climate, rain, temperature, humidity, wind, and sun. Abiotic factors do not have the same characteristics as biotic factors, such as breathing, growing, breeding, eating and drinking, excreting and adapting to their environment. Abiotic factors are driving factors for biotic so that biotic can live and carry out activities.

  • Geological History Factors
    In the early 1960s, evidence of continental drift was found. The continents belonging to Pangea began to gradually separate. The opening of the South Atlantic Ocean began approximately 125-130 million years ago, so that Africa and South America united directly. However, South America has also slowly moved into the American West and the two are connected to the isthmus of Panama.

    This happened approximately 3.6 million years ago. When the Panama “bridge” was fully formed, some animals and plants from South America including the Opossum and Armadillo migrated to the American West. At the same time some animals and plants from West America such as oak, deer and bears migrated to South America. So changes in position both on a large and small scale have a big influence on the distribution pattern of organisms, as we are witnessing today. Another example is flightless birds, such as ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis seen to have branching divergence very early in the evolutionary course of all other bird groups. As a result there was a subspecies earlier.

  • Physical Inhibiting Factors Physical
    inhibiting factors are also called geographic barriers or barriers (geographical isolation) such as land (land barrier), water (water barrier), and isthmus. Examples are: high mountains, deserts, rivers or oceans limit the spread and competition of a species. An example of a case is the occurrence of a subspecies of finches in the Galapagos islands due to geographical isolation. In the islands, Charles Darwin found 14 species of finches thought to have originated from a single species of finches from South America. The difference in the finches is due to different environmental conditions. The difference lies in the size and shape of the beak. This difference has to do with the type of food (Sugianto, 1994).

Distribution pattern of living things in Space

According to Odum (1971), the distribution of animals is influenced by the presence or absence of boundaries (barriers) and individuals who cannot be separated (vagility). The limitations in the distribution cannot be separated from the minimum law, the law of tolerance and a combination of the two laws.

Organisms in nature are controlled by:

  1. The amount and variety of materials to meet minimum requirements and extreme physical factors.
  2. The limits of tolerance of the organism itself to certain conditions and other components.

The spread of organisms from one place to another across various barrier factors. These barrier factors control the spread of the organism. The main barrier factors are climate and topography. In addition, reproductive barrier factors and endemism control the spread of organisms. As a result of the foregoing, on the surface of the earth, groups of animals and plants are formed that occupy different areas. The area that can be occupied by plants and animals is related to the opportunity and ability to spread.

The distribution of animals based on their coverage area can be divided into geographic scope, geological scope, and ecological scope. Geographical coverage is the area of ​​distribution covering land and water systems. Geological coverage, namely the state of land and sea in the past. Ecological coverage is the area of ​​distribution with suitable environmental conditions. The factors that affect these biotas are the pressure from other individuals who dominate a certain place. Other factors include competition, predators, disease, lack of food supplies, changing seasons and lack of shelter.

Structure and Function of Organisms

A. Cell

The cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of cellular living things. There are living things that are not cells, for example, viruses. Cellular living things can consist of one cell (unicellular) for example bacteria and many cells (multi-cellular) for example plants and higher animals. Based on the presence or absence of a nuclear membrane, cells are divided into prokaryotic cells (without a nuclear membrane) and eukaryotic cells (having a nuclear membrane). Prokaryotic cells are examples of bacteria and blue algae, and eukaryotic cells are examples of higher plant and animal cells. The cells discussed in this paper are only eukaryotic cells of multi-cellular organisms, namely plant and animal cells.

Eukaryotic cells generally have the same parts, namely: plasma membrane, cytoplasm and organelles. The cytoplasm is the cell fluid that is outside the nucleus, filling the space between the plasma membrane and the cell nucleus. The outermost component of the cytoplasm is the plasma membrane (plasmalemma). The cytoplasm consists of a matrix in which there are inclusions and organelles. Inclusion is a cytoplasmic object in the form of a collection of pigments, lipids, proteins, or carbohydrates, whether or not encased in a membrane. Organelles are permanent components of cells that are generally surrounded by membranes and contain enzymes for metabolism. Examples of organelles include the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts and the nucleus.

Plant Cell

In terms of its parts, plant cells are slightly different from
animal cells. The differences are: in plant cells have a cell wall,
plasmodesma, chloroplasts, and large vacuoles, whereas in animal cells they do not.
Other parts found in plant cells are generally the same as
animal cells.

  • a. Cell
    Walls Plant cell walls are made up of polysaccharides, namely cellulose. The function
    of the cell wall is to protect the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic membrane. In some
    plant cells, cells are connected to one another by

  • b. Plastids
    Generally, plant cells contain plastids; the diameter is 4 -6 microns
    (μ). Some plastids are colored and some are not. The colorless plastids are
    called leucoplasts while the colored ones are called chromoplasts. Leucoplasts that
    function to make starch are called amyloplasts and those that make fat are
    called lipo lasts. While chromoplasts containing chlorophyll are called

  • c. Vacuoles
    Vacuoles are present in both plant and animal cells, but in
    plant cells they appear larger and clearer, especially in old cells.
    The vacuole in plant cells is surrounded by a single membrane called the tonoplast.
    Plant cell vacuoles generally contain water, phenols, anthocyanins, alkaloids and

B. Network

As has been stated, that tissue is a collection of cells that have the same shape and function. The branch of biology that deals specifically with tissues is called histology. In the discussion of this network, first, the tissue in animals will be presented, then the tissue in plants will be presented.

Tissue Tissue in plants can be distinguished into meristem tissue,
mature tissue, supporting tissue, transport tissue, and cork tissue.

a. Variety of Plant Tissue

1) Meristem
Tissue Meristematic tissue is a young tissue whose cells are always dividing or
are meristematic. This tissue is only found in certain parts of the plant.

Meristematic tissue characteristics:

  1. – Located in a collection of thin-walled cells
  2. – Relatively similar in shape and size
  3. – Rich in protoplasm
  4. – Generally have a small vacuole.

Meristematic tissue is divided into two types, namely:

  • a) Primary meristems, namely meristems whose cells are direct development of embryonic cells so that they are a continuation of embryonic growth. For example, the tip of the stem and the tip of the root. The meristems present at the tip of the root and the tip of the stem are called apical meristems.
  • b) Secondary meristems, namely meristems originating from mature tissues that have differentiated. For example, cambium and cork cambium that occur from parenchyma or parenchymal ground tissue.

2) Adult
Tissue Adult tissue is a differentiated network. On

Generally, mature tissue does not divide. The adult network consists of:

  1. a) Epidermal tissue, which is the outermost tissue that covers the entire surface.
  2. b) Parenchyma tissue, often called ground tissue because it is formed from ground meristems. Based on the shape, parenchyma can be divided into several types, namely:

  • a) Palisade parenchyma, elongated, erect and contain lots of chlorophyll. This parenchyma is a constituent of the leaf mesophyll.
  • b) Sponge parenchyma, the shape and arrangement of cells is irregular, the space between cells is relatively large.
  • c) Star parenchyma, has a star-like shape, the ends are interconnected so that it has a lot of space between cells.
  • d) Parenchyma folds, the cell walls hold folds towards the inside and contain lots of chloroplasts.

3). Support
The network Support network is also known as amplifier or stereo network.

The main function of this tissue is to strengthen parts of the plant body, this tissue consists of collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

  • a) Collenchyma, is a supporting tissue or reinforcement in young body tissues and old organs in soft plants, elongated shape with uneven wall thickening at the corners.
  • b) Sclerenchyma, is a strengthening tissue or sometimes as a protective tissue, the cells are thickened secondary to lignin or wood substances. Sclerenchyma tissue consists of sclerenchyma fibers. Examples of sclerenchyma, for example in corn stalks. Examples of sclereids for example in tea leaf pteplus and coconut and candlenut shells.

4) Transport
the network Transport network is plant tissue that functions to transport or transport substances. This tissue consists of xylem or wood vessels and phloem or filter vessels. Xylem is a complex tissue, which can consist of xylem cells, fiber cells, and parenchyma cells. Xylem cells and fibrous cells generally experience thickening of the wood substance and die. Xylem cells are arranged lengthwise and form vessels. Xylem functions to transport mineral substances and water from the soil to the leaves. Phloem is a complex network consisting of companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers. The function of phloem is to transport the products of photosynthesis.

5) Cork
tissue Cork tissue is a network composed of cork cells. This network serves to protect the underlying tissue so as not to lose too much water.

b. Tissue in Plant Organs

1. Tissue in the Root The
tissue in the transverse section of the root (young roots) looks from the outside to the inside, namely the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and stele.

  1. a. Epidermis
    The cells are tightly packed, as thick as a layer of cells, and have no intercellular spaces, the cell walls are not thickened and water and mineral salts can pass through.

  2. b. Cortex
    Located below the epidermis, consists of layers of cells with thin walls, the arrangement is not tight, there are many spaces between cells that are important for the exchange of substances.

  3. c. Endodermis
    That is the innermost layer of the cortex, consisting of one layer of cells, and at the same time as a separator between the cortex and the central cylinder, the cells are tightly packed without intercellular spaces. Endodermal cells generally experience a U-shaped thickening, and some of them that do not experience thickening are referred to as passing cells or successor cells that act as a pathway for the entry and exit of water and mineral salts.

  4. d. Stele / Central cylinder

Is the deepest part of the root, consists of:

  • 1) Perisikel or perikambium is the outermost part of the stele.
  • 2) The vascular bundle, consisting of xylem and phloem.
  • 3) Parenchyma tissue, is a filler tissue between the bundles of transport vessels, has thin walls without thickening and has cytoplasm.

2. Tissue in the Stem
In simple terms, the tissue in the cross-section of the stem (young stem) from outside to inside is as follows:

  • a. The epidermis consists of a layer of cells that are tightly packed and have no intercellular spaces.
  • b. Cortex, which is the inner skin of the epidermis which is composed of parenchyma tissue and has many spaces between cells.
  • c. Endodermis / fluterma, is a separator between the cortex with the central cylinder.
  • d. Stele / elinder center that is the inside of the stem.

The functions of the tissue in the stem include:

  •  as a support or enforcer of the plant body
  • a place for transporting water and mineral salts (xylem) and transporting
    photosynthetic products (phloem).
  • Food reserves, stored in cells, especially parenchymal cells.

3. Tissue in the Leaf
In a transverse leaf incision, epidermal tissue (top and bottom), mesophyll tissue or leaf flesh can be found, and leaf bone tissue or leaf veins.

  • a. Epidermis
    Composed by a single layer of cells whose cell walls are thickened from the cuticle or from lignin. In the epidermis (generally the lower epidermis) there is a gap flanked by two guard cells, this gap is called a stoma (leaf mouth). Between the leaf epidermis, there are additional tools such as trichomes (feathers).

  • b. Mesophyll
    Consists of parenchyma cells. Parenchyma cells that are long and tightly arranged are called palisade tissue or pole/fence tissue. Parenchyma cells under the palisade which are arranged loosely with many spaces between cells are called spongy tissue or spongy tissue. Both parenchyma tissues contain a lot of chloroplasts.

  • c. Leaf
    bones or leaf veins (branches of leaf bones), consist of a network of xylem and phloem transport vessels and parenchyma.

C. Organs and Organ Systems in Plants

Organs and Organ Systems in Plants
Organs in plants include:

A. Roots Root
functions include:

  1. Strengthens the erection of the stem, the depth and breadth of the roots are proportional to the height and shade of the leaves
  2. In some plants, roots function to store food reserves
  3. To absorb water and minerals in the soil
  4. To breathe

If you look at the tips of young roots, you can see that there are four growth areas (primary), which are as follows.

  • a. The root cap (calyptra), which is located at the tip of the root, protects the root meristem from mechanical damage to all plant roots except for the roots of parasitic plants and roots that form mycorrhizae.
  • b. cleavage area
  • c. Region of cell division (region of elongation)
  • d. Region of cell differentiation

The cross-section of young roots from outside to inside is.

  • Epidermis: The cell wall is thin and has no intercellular spaces. It is semipermeable, there are root hairs whose function is to suck water and mineral salts from the soil, and to expand the root surface.
  • Cortex: Thin walls, lots of intercellular space. Its function is to exchange substances and store starch.
  • Endodermis: Is a separator between the cortex and stele. Its function is to regulate the entry of water and substances that are located into the central cylinder.
  • stele

Composed of parenchyma tissue, the outer layer is called periwinkle or perikambium Consists of:

  • Pericycle = perikambium. Is a tissue that is located parallel to the endodermis for the formation of root branches
  •  Vascular cambium. Serves to form secondary phloem and xylem, initially star-shaped (radial) but eventually rounded
  •  Xylem/wood vascular bundle
  • the cells die, arranged longitudinally, the fibers disappear
  • function to transport food from roots to leaves
  • consists of tracheal and tracheal elements
  •  Phloem, consisting of:
  • sieve tubes
  • companion cells that produce the hormone traulin
  •  Filler tissue (parenchyma) serves as an empty part.

B. Rod
The function of the rod:

  1. As a food reserve, for example in sugar cane
  2. Where the leaves and roots grow
  3. To transport nutrients from roots to leaves or vice versa
  4. To establish a plant
  5. To breathe

In the stem there are three main regions, namely the epidermis, cortex, and central cylinder. Dicotyledonous stems are cambium so that they can grow bigger, have endodermis and perisicles, are bound by open collateral vessels, and are arranged in a circular vascular bundle. Monocot stems do not have cambium, so they do not grow bigger, have endodermis and pericycle. Collateral vascular bundles are closed and the transport bundles appear scattered.

C. Leaves
Leaves are the site of photosynthesis, the thinner the leaf surface, the faster photosynthesis occurs.

Leaf function:

  1.  For photosynthesis and respiration
  2. Dispensing device at the time of evaporation (evaporation) and guttation
  3. Place of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. This is due to the presence of stomata and emiserium (a device for excreting water in plants). In other plants, the leaves function as a means of vegetative reproduction.

Leaf composting tissue:

  • a. Epidermis
    Leaf epidermis consists of cells with thick walls covered with cuticle and sometimes non-lignin, no chlorophyll, found on the lower and upper surfaces and serves as a protector.
  • b. Parenchyma/mesophyll
    In monocotyledonous leaves, there is no differentiation, whereas in dicotyledonous leaves it is already deficient into a network of poles and fences (palisade) on the outside and inside spongy tissue (sponges) on the inside.
  • c. Transporter Leaf transport tissue is the end and beginning of the phloem.

Leaves (complete leaf morphology) are:

  • Leaf sheath (upih leaf/vaginula)
  • Petiole (ptiolus)
  • Leaf blade (lamina)

Examples of bananas, palms, areca nut The incomplete leaves are for example in

  • Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) has only one leaf blade
  • Acacia (Acasia auruculiformis-Acunn), the leaves are

stem widening. The difference between leaves in dicots and monocots is that the leaves of monocotyledonous plants have parallel or curved veins, while in dicotyledonous plants the veins are pinnate or fingered.

D. Flowers
Flowers are plant organs that appear only at certain times, namely if the plant has reached a certain age.

The flower structure consists of:

  1. flower petals (calyx) which protect the flower buds
  2. flower crown (corolla) which attracts insects
  3. stamens, which produce pollen
  4. pistil (pistilum) is the producer of female gametes

E. Fruits and seeds
Fruit is one of the plant organs that function:

  1. Save food reserves
  2. Reproduction tool because it contains seeds

Fruit is the growth of the ovary after fertilization occurs. The seed is a new individual candidate that grows inside the fruit, consisting of an endosperm wrapped by a seed coat.

Plant Organisms

Plants refer to organisms that belong to the RegnumPlantae. It includes all the organisms that people are familiar with, such as trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, mosses, and some green algae. Recorded about 350,000 species of organisms included in it, not including green algae. Of that number, 258,650 species are flowering plants and 18,000 species of mosses. Almost all plant members are autotrophs , and get energy directly from sunlight through the process of photosynthesis. Because the green color is very dominant in members of this kingdom, another name used is Viridiplantae (“green plants”). Another name is Metaphyta.

An immediately recognizable feature in plants is the dominant green color due to the content of the chlorophyll pigment which plays a vital role in the process of capturing energy through photosynthesis. Thus, plants are generally autotrophs. Some exceptions, such as in some parasitic plants, are the result of adaptations to unique ways of life and environments. Because of their autotrophic nature, plants always occupy the first position in the chain of energy flow through living organisms (food chain).

Plants are stationary or cannot move on their own, although some green algae are motile (capable of moving) because they have a flagellum. Due to its passive nature, plants must adapt physically to environmental changes and disturbances they receive. The morphological variation of plants is much greater than that of other members of the kingdom. In addition, plants produce a lot of secondary metabolites as a survival mechanism against environmental changes or intruder attacks. Reproduction is also affected by this trait.

At the cellular level, a cell wall composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin is characteristic, although in simple plants sometimes it is only composed of pectin. Only plant cells have plastids; also large vacuoles and often dominate the cell volume.

General Characteristics of Organisms

Organisms are living things made up of many interrelated components and work together to achieve a common goal. Organisms come in many sizes, shapes and lifestyles, but they all share some traits in common. All organisms need food (nutrients) and excrete waste, grow, reproduce and finally, die.

The common characteristics found in many organisms are as follows:

  • Need nutrition/food
  • Breathe
  • Move
  • Grow
  • Breed
  • Sensitive to stimuli
  • Adapt, and there is a chemical composition
  • Get rid of waste

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