Brain Bleeding Definition, Type, Signs & symptoms

Brain Bleeding Definition, Type, Signs & symptoms

Table of Content

1. Definition
2. Type
3. Signs & symptoms
4. Reason
5. Risk factors
6. Complications
7. Diagnosis & Treatment
8. Home remedies

Definition: What is Brain Bleeding?

Brain hemorrhage is one type of stroke which is also known as brain hemorrhage. This condition occurs when an artery in the brain bursts.

This bleeding causes irritation and swelling of the brain tissue, also known as cerebral edema. Blood will pool and clot ( hematoma ). These clots can put pressure on brain tissue, eventually affecting the blood flow around it.

Blood flow is not smooth, making the cells in the brain do not get oxygen and food. Eventually, brain cells break down and die.

Bleeding can occur within the brain, between the brain and the membranes that cover it, between the protective coverings of the brain, or between the skull and the protective coverings of the brain.

This condition is a medical emergency and requires treatment as soon as possible. In some cases, patients with this condition end up with permanent paralysis. However, not a few patients who managed to recover perfectly.

Possible complications can include stroke, loss of brain function or side effects from medications or treatments. Death can occur quickly, even with immediate medical care.

How common is cerebral hemorrhage?

Bleeding that occurs in the brain is a very common condition and can affect patients of any age group. However, this condition is more common in adult patients than in younger people.

In addition, this disorder is more common in male than female patients. As many as 15% of stroke cases are associated with a bleeding brain condition.

Although more commonly found in adults, it is not uncommon for brain hemorrhages to occur in children and newborns. Generally, the condition is caused by a blood vessel anomaly or an injury at birth.

This condition can be treated by recognizing what risk factors exist. To find out more information about this disease, you can discuss directly with your doctor.

What are the types of cerebral hemorrhage?

Brain hemorrhage is a condition that can be divided into several types. The division of this type is based on the location of the bleeding.

The following are the most common types of cerebral hemorrhage:

1. Intracerebral

This type of bleeding is the most common. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and blood flows through the brain tissues. This bleeding causes brain cells to die and some parts of the brain fail to function normally.

Generally, intracerebral hemorrhage is caused by high blood pressure or genetic disorders such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM).

2. Subarachnoid

This type of cerebral hemorrhage occurs in the part between the brain and the membrane that lines the brain, or what is often referred to as the subarachnoid space.

3. Subdural

Bleeding that occurs under the dura mater and over the membrane that lines the brain. The dura mater is the toughest layer under the skull

4. Epidural

Bleeding that develops under the skull (above the dura mater).

Signs & symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms of a brain hemorrhage?

The signs and symptoms that appear in this condition are usually quite diverse. Symptoms depend on the location of the bleeding, its severity, and how much brain tissue is affected.

In addition, the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage may appear suddenly or develop over time. The most common symptoms that appear are headaches, visual disturbances, and body balance problems.

The following are the most common signs and symptoms found in brain hemorrhage patients:

1. Sudden severe headache
2. Weakness in the arms or legs
3. Nauseous vomit
4. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
5. Difficulty swallowing
6. Difficulty writing or reading
7. Impairment of vision in one or both eyes
8. Loss of balance and coordination, dizziness
9. Apathy, sleepy
10. Loss of consciousness
11. Dazed, delirious
12. Sense of taste that does not function normally

There may be signs and symptoms not listed above. If you have concerns about a particular symptom, consult your doctor.

When should I see a doctor?

We recommend that you immediately consult a doctor as soon as possible if you have experienced the signs or symptoms above. Prompt treatment is expected to reduce complications and speed up recovery.

Each person’s body may show various signs and symptoms. To get the right treatment and according to your health condition, always consult a doctor.


What causes brain hemorrhage?

The causes of bleeding in or around the brain vary, ranging from a head injury, high blood pressure, to other health problems.

Here are some causes of brain hemorrhage:

1. Trauma to the head

Injury is one of the main causes of bleeding in the brain. This condition is more common in people under 50 years of age.

2. High blood pressure

Chronic high blood pressure can weaken the walls of blood vessels over a long period of time. If this condition is not treated immediately, blood will collect in the brain and cause the symptoms of a stroke.

3. Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a condition in which the walls of blood vessels in the brain weaken and become swollen. This swelling has the potential to burst and cause bleeding in the brain, as well as the appearance of stroke symptoms.

4. Abnormalities of blood vessels

This condition, also known as arteriovenous malformations (AVM), is caused by weakening of the blood vessels in and around the brain. Usually, this disorder appears at birth and is only diagnosed when symptoms appear.

5. Amyloid angiopathy

Abnormalities in the walls of blood vessels due to aging and high blood pressure are known as amyloid angiopathy. This condition may start with light bleeding, which then progress to severe bleeding.

6. Abnormalities in the blood

Blood disorders such as hemophilia and sickle cell anemia can affect the production of platelets in the blood. This can be fatal in cerebral hemorrhage.

7. Problems with the liver

This condition is associated with increased bleeding in the body as a whole.

Risk factors

What increases my risk for a brain hemorrhage?

Brain hemorrhage is a brain disorder that can affect people of all ages and races. However, there are several factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing the condition.

The following are risk factors that trigger bleeding in or around the brain:

1. Age

Brain hemorrhages are more common in adults and the elderly, although children also have the opportunity to suffer from this disease.

2. Gender

Cases of cerebral hemorrhage are more common in male than female patients.

3. Have a history of hypertension

If you have or are having high blood pressure, your chances of bleeding are higher.

4. Suffering from heart disease

Problems or diseases of the heart have the potential to affect blood pressure. This of course increases the risk of your brain bleeding.

5. Suffered a stroke

Stroke and cerebral hemorrhage are two conditions that are often closely related. As many as 15 percent of stroke cases are associated with bleeding that occurs in the brain. In addition, about 40 percent of deaths from strokes are also caused by bleeding in the brain.

6. Taking drugs

Illegal drugs such as cocaine that are consumed in excess can weaken the blood vessels in the brain. This can increase the risk of bleeding.


What are the complications caused by brain hemorrhage?

Some complications can arise due to bleeding that occurs in the brain. Bleeding causes cells in the brain to fail to coordinate with other body organs. This can result in impaired organ function.

Some of the problems that often arise due to brain bleeding are disturbances in body movement, speech, or the ability to remember.

Depending on the location of the bleeding and its severity, some complications are likely to be permanent. Some of them are:

1. Paralysis
2. Some parts of the body feel weak or numb
3. Difficulty swallowing or dysphagia
4. Impaired vision
5. Difficulty speaking
6. Difficulty understanding words or information
7. Confusion
8. Lost memory
9. Changes in personality and emotional problems (depression)
10. Fever
11. Brain swelling
12. Seizures
13. Pneumonia

Diagnosis & Treatment

The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. ALWAYS consult your doctor.

How is cerebral hemorrhage diagnosed?

If you experience signs and symptoms of a brain hemorrhage, consult a doctor as soon as possible. Bleeding that is diagnosed and treated as early as possible can speed up the recovery process and increase the effectiveness of treatment.

During the diagnosis process, the doctor will ask what symptoms you are experiencing, previous health problems, current medication, and family history of illness.

After that, the doctor will perform a neurological or eye exam, which can show swelling of the optic nerve.

Several additional tests, such as photo-taking tests, will also be performed to get a more accurate diagnosis. These tests include:

1. CT scan

This test can help examine the anatomical structures inside the brain. The goal is to detect bleeding in the brain. Another type of CT scan, namely CT angiography, is performed by injecting fluid into the bloodstream. This fluid will show contrast when scanned, so the bleeding arteries will be clearly seen.

2. Angiogram

An angiogram is a procedure performed by inserting a catheter into an artery. This catheter will be inserted until it reaches the blood vessels in the brain. When the catheter is in the correct position, a certain fluid will be injected into the bloodstream, much like a CT angiography procedure.

3. MRI scan

An MRI scan is performed by using a magnetic field and radio frequency waves to give a clear picture of your brain tissues.

Certain procedures such as lumbar puncture (spinal tap) are usually not performed, as they are dangerous and can worsen the bleeding condition.

How is a brain hemorrhage treated?

Handling and treatment of cerebral hemorrhage aims to increase the likelihood of recovery, reduce existing symptoms, and prevent complications.

If the cause and location of the bleeding is known, the doctor will treat it with drugs, medical treatment, or surgery. The goal is to stop bleeding, eliminate blood clots, and reduce pressure on the brain.

In general, patients with light bleeding will be treated with medical care and medication. However, patients with more severe bleeding will be treated with surgical procedures or surgery.

1. Medical treatment

Patients will be treated in the stroke unit or ICU so that they can be monitored and treated intensively. The following is a series of treatments that may be performed by a doctor:

1. Administration of drugs that reduce blood clotting
2. Blood pressure control
3. Monitor the pressure on the skull
4. Catheter installation
5. Handling hyperventilation

2. Operation

The goal of surgery is to remove as many blood clots as possible, as well as reduce bleeding. There are two choices of surgical methods, namely craniotomy and stereotactic clot aspiration.

Craniotomy surgery is performed by making a hole in the skull to remove blood clots. However, this technique is high-risk, so it is only done when the clot is located close to the surface of the brain.

Stereotactic clot aspiration surgery is a technique used for clots that occur in the deep brain. This procedure uses an endoscope or a needle inserted with the help of a stereotactic device, to detect the location of the clot.

3. Medicines

For further treatment, the doctor may also prescribe several types of drugs. The goal is to control blood pressure, prevent seizures, reduce pain, and help patients who have difficulty swallowing.

The following are medicines that doctors prescribe:

1. Sedative
2. Antiepileptic or anticonvulsant drugs
3. Pain-killer
4. Diuretics and corticosteroids

Long-term treatment will be needed to manage symptoms caused by damage to the brain. Depending on the symptoms, treatment may include physical therapy and speech therapy.

Home remedies

What are some lifestyle changes or home remedies that can be done to treat a brain hemorrhage?
Here are some lifestyles that can help you deal with brain hemorrhage:

1. Treat high blood pressure. Research shows 80% of patients with cerebral hemorrhage have a history of high blood pressure. The most important thing you can do is control your blood pressure with diet, exercise and medication.
2. Do not smoke.
3. Be careful with substances such as cocaine which can increase bleeding in the brain.
4. Drive carefully and wear a seat belt.
5. If you ride a motorcycle, wear a helmet.
6. Be careful with coumadin. If you are taking this drug, also known as warfarin, check with your doctor regularly to make sure your blood levels are in the right range.
7. Keep diabetes under control
8. Maintain a healthy lifestyle.

If you have any questions, consult a doctor for the best solution for your problem.

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