Bladder Stones Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Bladder Stones Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Bladder Stones Definition

Bladder stones are stones composed of minerals, which are found in the bladder. The bladder itself is a reservoir for urine or urine before being expelled from the body through the urethra.

Bladder Stones Reason

Bladder stones are caused by improper bladder emptying, so urine remains in the bladder. As a result, minerals in the urine (especially concentrated urine) can stick together and harden to form crystals and eventually stones.

Several medical conditions increase the risk factors for bladder stone formation, such as:

  • prostate enlargement
  • neurogenic bladder (nerve damage that causes poor bladder emptying)
  • cystocele (weakness in the bladder wall that causes the bladder to ‘drop’ into the vagina)
  • bladder diverticula (formation of ‘sacs’ in the bladder wall)
  • diet (a diet high in fat, sugar and salt and low in vitamins A and B)
  • not drinking (causing concentrated urine)

Bladder Stones Diagnosis

To determine the diagnosis of bladder ash, urine analysis can be done. The presence of bladder stones can give positive results for the examination of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and blood.

In addition, blood tests can be carried out to evaluate kidney function and an increase in leukocytes (white blood cells) in cases of blockages due to stones and infections.

Radiological examination is also very helpful in the diagnosis of bladder stones. The gold standard examination recommended by the American Urological Association is a non-contrast CT scan for the abdomen (abdomen) and pelvis (pelvic). If this test is not available, a KUB (Kidney, Ureter, Bladder) X-ray may be performed.

In pregnant women, the recommended examination is ultrasound.

Bladder Stones Symptom

Symptoms that can be caused by bladder stones are quite diverse, such as:

  • lower abdominal pain, can also be felt in the genitals
  • pain or difficulty urinating
  • more frequent urination, especially at night
  • difficulty initiating urination (
  • stream of urine that stops and reappears when urinating
  • cloudy or dark urine
  • presence of blood in the urine

In some people, they may not feel any symptoms.

Bladder Stones Treatment

For the treatment of bladder stones, there are two types of treatment that can be done, namely:

  • Pharmacologist
    • Giving the drug (potassium citrate) aims to make the urine more alkaline so that it can dissolve acidic stones (used in cases of uric acid stones forming).
    • The target urine pH is 6.5 or more, but keep in mind there is a risk of calcium phosphate deposits on the surface of the stone making therapy ineffective
  • Surgery
    There are several surgical approaches that can be considered for treating bladder stones. The use of an endoscope aims to crush the stone into smaller pieces, so that it can pass through the urinary tract.
    However, in cases of stones that are too large, too hard, or a small urinary tract (eg in children), open surgery is generally recommended.

Bladder Stones Prevention

To prevent the formation of bladder stones, there are several actions that can be taken, including:

  • treatment of medical conditions that increase risk factors for bladder stone formation
  • increase fluid intake to reduce urine concentration
  • urinate regularly, don’t hold your bladder
  • If urinating feels incomplete, don’t hesitate to try to urinate again 10-20 seconds after the first attempt to urinate
  • avoid constipation

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