Arteriosclerosis Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Arteriosclerosis Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Arteriosclerosis Definition

Arteriosclerosis is a condition where the arteries are narrowed due to plaque. Plaque in blood vessels is the result of a buildup of cholesterol, calcium, and inflammatory cells.


If the narrowing that occurs is getting more severe, then the organs that should get nutrients and oxygen from the blood vessels will also lack supply. Organs that are deprived of oxygen and nutrients will then begin to be disturbed.

Sometimes, the plaque in the blood vessels ‘breaks’ and releases following the bloodstream. The loose plaque can clog blood vessels elsewhere. Then suddenly can cause a heart attack or stroke.

In general, in the human body, there are two types of blood vessels, namely arteries and veins. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to all parts of the body. On the other hand, veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart.

Arteriosclerosis Reason

Arteriosclerosis occurs due to various factors, including:

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol levels
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke
  • High blood sugar levels
  • Genetic factors in the family

Arteriosclerosis Diagnosis

At the initial examination, the doctor will collect information about the patient’s complaints and perform a thorough physical examination. After that, several checks can be done, such as:

  • Blood tests to determine blood sugar and cholesterol levels, which are risk factors for arteriosclerosis.
  • Doppler ultrasound examination, to see the condition and blood flow in the blood vessels. From this examination can be known whether or not there is a blockage in the blood vessels.
  • CT scan to determine the presence of narrowed blood vessels.

Arteriosclerosis Symptom

Mild arteriosclerosis generally does not cause any symptoms. Meanwhile, if arteriosclerosis causes severe narrowing, various symptoms can occur, depending on the organ affected.

If arteriosclerosis occurs in the carotid arteries (blood vessels that are responsible for delivering blood to the brain), the symptoms that can arise are:

  • Weakness of the body on one side
  • Difficult to breathe
  • Headache
  • Numbness in half of the face
  • Puffy mouth
  • Speak up

If arteriosclerosis occurs in the coronary arteries (blood vessels responsible for delivering blood to the heart muscle), the symptoms usually include:

  • Chest pain, especially in the left chest as if a heavy object has been hit
  • Heartburn
  • A cold sweat
  • Vomit
  • Faint

If arteriosclerosis occurs in the veins of the lower legs, complaints will occur, such as:

  • Pain in the lower limbs that gets worse with activity
  • Legs feel cold or bluish
  • There may be tingling or numbness
  • In severe conditions, the legs may not be able to move at all

Arteriosclerosis can cause various complications such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, stroke, and arrhythmias.

Arteriosclerosis Treatment

Treatment for arteriosclerosis includes:

  • Maintain an ideal body weight by doing rhythmic sports such as jogging, swimming, or cycling properly and regularly.
  • Eat high-fiber foods.
  • Taking antiplatelet drugs, which are blood-thinning medications to prevent further plaque formation.
  • Surgery to replace blood vessels ( angioplasty ) can be done if the blockage of the blood vessels that occurs is very severe and causes severe symptoms.

Arteriosclerosis Prevention

To prevent the occurrence of arteriosclerosis, there are several things that should be considered, such as:

    • Avoid eating foods that contain saturated fat because it will cause an increase in bad cholesterol, namely low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
    • Expand the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, such as olive oil, avocado, and fish oil. Also, increase the consumption of fibrous foods in the form of vegetables and fresh fruits.
    • Exercising correctly and regularly.
    • Avoid exposure to cigarette smoke.

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