Hypertension Definition (High Blood Pressure), Reason, Home remedies and Medicine & diagnosis

What is hypertension (high blood pressure)?

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. Blood pressure itself is the force of blood flow from the heart pushing against the walls of blood vessels (arteries).

The strength of this blood pressure can change from time to time, influenced by what activity the heart is doing (eg exercising or being in a normal/resting state) and the resistance of its blood vessels.

Hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure is higher than 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

The number 140 mmHg refers to the systolic reading, when the heart pumps blood around the body or when it contracts. Meanwhile, the number 90 mmHg refers to the diastolic reading, when the heart is at rest or in a relaxed state while refilling its chambers with blood.

Hypertension is a disease that is often referred to as the “silent killer” because this disease does not cause long-term symptoms. However, the disease may result in life-threatening complications, such as coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure.

What should be normal blood pressure?

Normal blood pressure is around 120/80 mmHg. When your systolic and diastolic numbers are in this range, you are said to have normal blood pressure.

A new person is said to have high blood pressure or hypertension if the blood pressure reading shows 140/90 mmHg. Blood pressure that is too high will interfere with blood circulation.

However, having normal blood pressure doesn’t mean you can relax. When your systolic number is between 120-139, or if your diastolic number (bottom number) is between 80-89, this means you have “prehypertension”. Although this figure cannot be considered hypertension, it is still above the normal number which should be wary of.

If your blood pressure reading is above 180/120 mmHg, or if you have a systolic or diastolic pressure higher than this number, you are at risk for very serious health problems. This figure indicates a condition called a hypertensive crisis.

If your blood pressure gets this high, your doctor will usually measure it again after a few minutes. If it is still the same height, you will be given emergency high blood pressure medication immediately.

How common is hypertension?

Almost anyone can experience high blood pressure. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) said the number is currently increasing globally. In fact, the increase in adults worldwide who will suffer from hypertension is predicted to jump to 29 percent by 2025.

Increased cases of hypertension also occur in Indonesia. Data for Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) belonging to the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 2018 showed that 34.1 percent of the Indonesian population had high blood pressure. While in 2013, the number still reached 25.8 percent.

Features & symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms of hypertension (high blood pressure)?

A person who has high blood pressure usually does not show any symptoms or only experiences mild symptoms. But in general, the symptoms of high blood pressure are:

  • Severe headache.
  • Dizzy.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Nauseous.
  • Ears ringing.
  • Confusion.
  • Irregular heartbeat.
  • Fatigue.
  • Chest pain.
  • It’s hard to breathe.
  • Blood in the urine.
  • A ticking sensation in the chest, neck, or ears.

There may still be other symptoms not listed above. Consult a doctor for more complete information.

When should I see a doctor?

Call your doctor immediately, if:

  • Blood pressure is higher than normal (more than 120/80 mm Hg).
  • Nosebleeds, headaches, or dizziness.
  • Side effects occur after taking high blood pressure medication.

Hypertension is a hidden disease and difficult to detect, so you need to have your blood pressure checked regularly if you are at risk of developing high blood pressure. Seek immediate medical attention or hospital care if you notice any signs or symptoms of an abnormality.

If a severe headache is accompanied by a nosebleed, this is a sign and symptom of a hypertensive crisis, an emergency.

If you want to check hypertension, what specialist should you go to?

Before going to a specialist, you must first check with a general practitioner, who you can meet at the clinic, health center, or hospital, or your nearest health service.

Usually, the general practitioner will perform a basic physical examination. During the examination, the doctor will ask what your complaints and signs have been. After that, usually the doctor or nurse will check your blood pressure.

From this examination, the doctor will usually be able to determine whether you really have hypertension, what type of hypertension you have, and what type of hypertension specialist you should check.

If there are other medical conditions that accompany your hypertension, such as kidney problems, your general practitioner will refer you to an internal medicine specialist. Meanwhile, if you are detected as having pulmonary hypertension, the doctor will refer you to a cardiologist.

You can immediately see a specialist without having to go to a general practitioner first. However, if you are not sure, you can ask your general practitioner first.


What causes hypertension (high blood pressure)?

There are two classifications or types of hypertension based on the cause. Primary or essential hypertension generally occurs due to heredity or an unhealthy lifestyle, such as smoking, consuming too much sodium (salt), stress, lazy to move, consuming excessive alcohol, and obesity.

For example, smoking habits. Smoking just one cigarette can cause an immediate spike in blood pressure and can increase systolic blood pressure levels by as much as 4 mmHg. The nicotine in tobacco products stimulates the nervous system to release chemicals that can constrict blood vessels and contribute to high blood pressure.

Too much consumption of salty foods, which contain sodium (processed foods, canned foods, fast foods ), can increase cholesterol and/or high blood pressure. Likewise, the consumption of foods or drinks that contain artificial sweeteners.

In addition, there is also what is called secondary hypertension. The cause of hypertension in this type, namely because of other medical conditions that accompany it. Several medical conditions can cause high blood pressure, including sleep apnea, kidney problems, tumors in the adrenal glands, thyroid problems, or diabetes.

High blood pressure can also appear as a side effect of medications for kidney failure and heart disease treatments. Birth control pills or over-the-counter cold medicines can also cause high blood pressure. Women who are pregnant or taking hormone replacement therapy may also develop high blood pressure.

As for children under 10 years also often experience high blood pressure due to other diseases, such as kidney disease. In such cases, the child’s blood pressure will return to normal after taking high blood pressure medication.

Risk factors

Who is at risk for hypertension (high blood pressure)?

Many factors put you at high risk of developing high blood pressure. Some of these factors, namely heredity or genetics, age, ethnicity, and gender.

Someone who is older tends to have higher blood pressure. The reason is, the older you get, the more your blood pressure will increase. This happens because the blood vessels we have tend to thicken and stiffen over time.

Someone who has a family history of high blood pressure is also at high risk of experiencing the same thing. As for ethnicity, this condition is generally more common in people of African descent than in Asians. In terms of age, adult women are more likely to have a high blood pressure than men.

Even though you do not belong to the above group, it does not mean that you are not at risk of developing hypertension. The reason is, the most important risk factor for hypertension is a bad or unhealthy lifestyle.

On the other hand, someone who has risk factors, such as genetics, age, and so on, can also be free from hypertension while adopting a healthy lifestyle.

In addition, the following factors can also increase a person’s risk of developing hypertension:

  • Fatigue
  • Diabetes
  • Gout
  • Obesity
  • High cholesterol
  • Kidney illness
  • Alcohol addiction
  • Women taking birth control pills

Having no risk factors doesn’t mean you won’t get hypertension. This factor is for reference only. Consult your doctor for more details.

The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. ALWAYS consult your doctor.

Can high blood pressure be cured?

High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition of persistently high blood pressure or more than 140/90 mmHg permanently

Hypertension can occur without a definite cause. However, hypertension can also arise due to other conditions or diseases, such as heart disease or kidney disease. This type of hypertension may be cured by treating the underlying disease.

However, most cases of high blood pressure (about 85% to 90%) in the world are classified as primary hypertension. In some cases, the cause of primary hypertension cannot be determined. In this condition, hypertension cannot be cured, but can only be controlled with high blood pressure medication and a healthy lifestyle.

Thus, if your blood pressure drops, it does not mean that you are completely cured of hypertension. You still have the potential risk of disease complications caused by hypertension if symptoms are not managed and blood pressure rises again.

Medicine & diagnosis

What high blood pressure medications are often used?

Treatment of hypertension is important to reduce the risk of death from heart disease. One way to treat this condition is by taking high blood pressure medication

Some drugs that are often prescribed by doctors to treat hypertension are:

  • Diuretics: chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, hydrochlorotiazide/HCT, indapamide , metolazone, bumetanide, furosemide, torsemide, amiloride, triamterene)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, benazepril hydrochloride, perindopril, ramipril, quinapril hydrochloride, and trandolapril)
  • beta-blockers: atenolol, propranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, betaxolol, acebutolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, nebivolol, and sotalol)
  • Calcium channel blockers: amlodipine , clevidipine, diltiazem, felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine, and nisoldipine
  • Alpha-blockers: doxazosin, terazosin hydrochloride, and prazosin hydrochloride
  • Vasodilators: hydralazine and minoxidil
  • Central-acting agents: clonidine, guanfacine, and methyldopa.

High blood pressure drugs must also be consumed regularly and in the right dose so that the benefits can be felt.

What are the usual tests for the diagnosis of high blood pressure (hypertension)?

Hypertension is diagnosed through a blood pressure test. Measurements are usually taken several times to ensure accurate results. If your blood pressure is high, your doctor may ask you to have it checked and tracked repeatedly at regular intervals.

If your blood pressure is more than 140/90 mmHg on a regular checkup, your doctor will diagnose you with hypertension. If you have a chronic disease, such as diabetes or kidney disease, and your blood pressure is over 130/80 mm Hg, you have also been diagnosed with hypertension.

It should also be understood that the results of blood pressure readings at the doctor and at home can be different. If you feel nervous every time you are in the hospital or at the doctor’s office, your blood pressure may rise with each visit so the doctor can diagnose you as having high blood pressure. Even though every time you check at home, your blood pressure is generally stable.

This phenomenon is also known as “white coat hypertension syndrome” or white coat hypertension syndrome. To confirm this, doctors usually measure your blood pressure more than once and away from the practice room.

If you have this syndrome, your risk of high blood pressure may continue to increase in the future. Therefore, it is important to have your blood pressure checked by a doctor or other health care professional at least every six to 12 months. This will give you plenty of time to make lifestyle changes that might help.

Home remedies

What lifestyle changes can be made to treat hypertension (high blood pressure)?

In addition to drugs, people with hypertension need to change their lifestyle to be healthier to help lower blood pressure while reducing your risk of other diseases due to hypertension. Some positive lifestyle changes you can make are:

  • A balanced diet and low salt diet.
  • Regular exercise.
  • Don’t smoke and don’t drink alcohol.
  • Trying to lose weight, if you are obese.

In addition to the methods above, you can also take other natural ways to help lower blood pressure, such as breathing techniques and muscle relaxation. Both of these things can help relieve stress which is also a trigger for rising blood pressure.

In addition, you also need to have your blood pressure checked regularly and follow the doctor’s treatment plan to be able to monitor and control your health condition.

These things need to be done for life. In addition to lowering blood pressure, you need to do it to prevent the increase in blood pressure getting higher in old age. The reason is, as you age, your blood pressure tends to be higher and slowly rises after you reach the age of 50.

If you have any questions, consult a doctor for the best solution for your problem.


What are the possible complications of high blood pressure?

Hypertension generally does not cause symptoms. Therefore, most people do not know that they have high blood pressure if they do not regularly check their blood pressure.

If this condition is left untreated or not treated properly, it can lead to other complications. Here are some complications of hypertension that may occur:

  • Problems with the arteries, such as aneurysms.
  • Heart problems, such as a heart attack, heart failure, or other heart diseases.
  • strokes.
  • Kidney problems.
  • Eye damage.
  • dementia.

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