SWOT Analysis- Definition and Types of SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis- Definition and Types of SWOT Analysis

Definition of SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a project or a business speculation. These four factors make up the acronym SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats).

This process involves determining the specific objectives of the speculated business or project and identifying the internal and external factors that support and which do not achieve these goals.

SWOT analysis can be applied by analyzing and sorting out various things that affect the four factors, then applying it in a SWOT matrix image, where the application is how strengths are able to take advantage of existing opportunities, how to overcome weaknesses ( weaknesses) which prevent the advantages from existing opportunities, then how the strengths are able to deal with the existing threats, and finally how to overcome the weaknesses that are able to make the threats become real. or create a new threat.

According to Daniel Start and Ingie Hovland, SWOT analysis is a classic strategic planning instrument using a framework of strengths and weaknesses as well as external opportunities and threats. This instrument provides a simple way to estimate the best way to execute a strategy. This instrument helps planners what can be achieved, and what things they need to pay attention to.

The SWOT method was first used by Albert Humphrey who conducted research at Stamford University in 1960-1970 with an analysis of companies sourced in Fortune 500. However, if we look back this analysis has existed since the 1920s as part of the Harvard Policy Model developed at Harvard Business School. However, when it was first used, there were several main weaknesses, among which the analysis made was still descriptive in nature and did not even relate to strategies that might be developed from the strength-weakness analysis that had been carried out.

The results of the analysis are usually directions/recommendations to maintain strengths and take advantage of existing opportunities while reducing weaknesses and avoiding threats. If used correctly, a SWOT analysis will help us to see sides that have been forgotten or unseen so far.

This analysis is descriptive and will sometimes be very subjective because it is possible that two people analyzing an organization will view the four parts differently. This is natural because a SWOT analysis is an analysis that will provide output in the form of direction and does not provide a “magic” solution to a problem.

Types of SWOT Analysis

There are two SWOT analysis models that are commonly used for situation analysis, namely:

1. Quantitative Model
2. Qualitative Model

1. Quantitative Model

A basic assumption of this model is a paired condition between S and W and O and T. This paired condition occurs because it is assumed that in every strength there is always a hidden weakness and from every open opportunity there is always a threat to watch out for. This means that every one formulation of Strengths (S), must always have one pair of Weaknesses (W) and every one formulation of Opportunities (O) must have one pair of one Threats (T).

Then after each component is formulated and paired, the next step is to carry out an assessment process. Assessment is done by giving a score to each sub-component, where one sub-component is compared with other sub-components in the same component or following a vertical line. Sub-components that are more decisive in the running of the organization, are given a higher score. Assessment standards are made based on a mutual agreement to reduce the level of subjectivity of the assessment.

2. Qualitative Model

The sequence in making a qualitative SWOT analysis is not much different from the sequence in the quantitative model, the big difference between the two is when the subcomponents are made from each component. If in the quantitative model each S subcomponent has a W subcomponent pair, and one O subcomponent has a T subcomponent pair, then in the qualitative model this does not happen. In addition, the Sub-Components of each component (SW-OT) are independent and have no relationship with each other. This means that a qualitative model cannot be made of a Cartesian diagram, because it is possible, for example, that there are 10 sub-components of S, while there are only 6 sub-components of W.

As an analytical tool, a SWOT analysis serves as a guide for making maps. When you have succeeded in making a map, the steps should not stop because the map does not show where to go, but the map can describe many paths that can be taken if you want to reach a certain goal. A new map will come in handy once a destination has been set. How to set goals is the next discussion, namely building the vision and mission of the organization or program.

SWOT Analysis Factor

SWOT analysis aims to maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize weaknesses and threats. Therefore, to start a SWOT analysis, we must understand each component of SWOT, create a framework, then plan and carry out the strategic steps taken.

The SWOT analysis consists of four factors, namely:

1. Strengths
2. Weaknesses (weaknesses)
3. Opportunities
4. Threats (threats)

1. Strengths

Strength factors in educational institutions are special competencies or other advantages that result in a plus or comparative advantage of the educational institution. This can be seen if an educational institution must have skills or skills that can be distributed to students, the best graduates or reliable results, as well as other advantages that can make the school superior to its competitors and can satisfy stakeholders and customers (students). , parents, society and nation).

Examples of areas of excellence include strength in financial resources, a positive image, superior position in the community, user loyalty and the trust of various interested parties. While the advantages of educational institutions in the era of educational autonomy, among others, are human resources which are quantitatively large, it just needs improvement in quality. In addition, the enthusiasm for the implementation of education is very high, supported by adequate educational infrastructure. Another thing about the superiority factor of educational institutions is that the community’s need for transcendental ones is very high, and that is very likely to be expected from the educational process of religious educational institutions.

For an educational institution to recognize the basic strengths of the institution as a first step or milestone towards high-quality based education is very important. Recognizing strengths and continuing to reflect is a big step towards progress for educational institutions.


1. What advantages do you/organization/company have that other people/organization/company don’t?
2. What can you/organization/company do better than other people/organization/company?
3. What are the things that make you/organization/company distinctive and unique?
4. What positive factors support your goals?

2. Weaknesses (weaknesses)

Weaknesses are natural in everything but the most important thing is how as policymakers in educational institutions can minimize these weaknesses or even these weaknesses become one side of the advantages that other educational institutions do not have. These weaknesses can be in the form of weaknesses in facilities and infrastructure, the quality or ability of educators, weak public trust, incompatibility between the results of graduates and the needs of the community or the business world and industry and others.

Therefore, there are several weakness factors that must be addressed by education managers, including:

1. Weak human resources in educational institutions
2. Facilities and infrastructure that are still limited to mandatory facilities
3. Private educational institutions are generally less able to seize opportunities, so they are only satisfied with the current situation.
4. Output at educational institutions that have not fully competed with the output of other educational institutions and so on.

3. Opportunities

Opportunity is an external environmental condition that is favorable and even becomes a formulation in educational institutions. For example, the environmental situation is:

1. An important trend that occurs among students.
2. Identify an educational service that has not received attention.
3. Changes in the state of competition.
4. Relationships with users or customers and so on.

Development opportunities in educational institutions can be carried out, among others, namely:

1. In an era that is currently experiencing a moral crisis and a crisis of honesty like this, a more dominant role for religious education is needed.
2. In the life of urban and modern society, which tends to be consumptive and hedonistic, it requires soul guidance, so that religious studies with Sufistic dimensions are increasingly mushrooming. This is an opportunity for the development of educational institutions in the future.
3. Historically and in reality, the majority of Indonesia’s population is Muslim, in fact it is the largest Muslim community in the world. This is a very strategic opportunity for the importance of the development management of educational institutions.

4. Threats (threats)

Threats are the opposite of opportunities, threats include environmental factors that are not favorable for an educational institution. If a threat is not addressed, it will become a barrier or a barrier to progress and the role of an educational institution itself.
Examples of these threats are declining interest in new students, low student motivation to learn, lack of public trust in these educational institutions and others.

Benefits of SWOT Analysis

In general, a SWOT analysis is used to:

1. Analyze the condition of self and personal environment
2. Analyzing the internal conditions of the institution and the external environment of the institution
3. Analyze the company’s internal conditions and the company’s external environment
4. Knowing how far we are in our environment
5. Knowing the position of an institution among other institutions
6. Knowing the ability of a company in running its business in the face of its competitors

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
Relationship between Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats in SWOT Analysis

According to Said, 2013 describes the relationship between Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats in the SWOT analysis as follows:

1. Strengths and Weaknesses

Strength is an internal factor within the institution that can be used to move the institution forward. A strength or distinctive competence will only be a competitive advantage for an institution if the strength is related to the surrounding environment, for example, whether the strength is needed or can affect the surrounding environment.

If in other institutions there are strengths that have the same core competence, then the strength must be measured by how the relative strength of an institution is compared to other institutions. So it can be concluded that not all strengths owned by institutions should be forced to be developed because there are times when these strengths are not too important when viewed from the wider environment.

The opposite of strength is weakness. So it is the same as strengths, not all weaknesses of the institution must be forced to be corrected, especially for things that have no effect on the surrounding environment.

2. Opportunities and Threats.

Opportunity is a factor obtained by comparing internal analysis conducted in an institution (strengths and weaknesses) with internal analysis of other competitors. Like strengths, opportunities must also be ranked based on success probability, so that not all opportunities must be achieved in the institutional targets and strategies.

Opportunities can be categorized into three levels, namely:

1. Low, if it has little appeal and benefits and the chances of achieving it are also small.
2. Moderate, if it has great appeal and benefits but small chances of achievement or vice versa.
3. Best, if it has high attractiveness and benefits and the chances of achieving it are great.

Meanwhile, threats are everything that occurs due to development trends (competition) and cannot be avoided. Threats can also be seen from the severity of their influence (seriousness) and the possibility of occurrence (probability of occurrence).

So that these threats can be categorized as follows:

1. The main threats (Major Threats) are threats that have a high probability of occurrence and large impacts. For this main threat, several planning must be carried out by the institution to anticipate it.
2. Minor Threats are threats that have a small impact and are unlikely to occur.
3. Moderate threats are a combination of high severity but low probability of occurrence and vice versa.

From this, it can be concluded that several categories of institutional situations are seen from the relationship between opportunities and threats, namely as follows:

1. An institution is said to be superior if it has large major opportunities and small major threats.
2. An institution is said to be speculative if it has high opportunities and threats at the same time.
3. An institution is said to be mature if it has the low opportunity and low threat.
4. An institution is said to be in trouble if it has low opportunities and high threats.

There is no one best way to do a SWOT analysis. The main thing is to bring different perspectives/perspectives together so that new connections and implications of these relationships will be seen.

SWOT Analysis Example

Component A Table: Vision, Mission, Goals, and Goals

Strength 1. Have a clear and realistic vision, mission, and goals2. Accredited by BAN-PT.
Weakness 1. The implementation of Akbid X’s vision, mission, and goals is still not aligned2. The vision, mission, goals, and objectives of Akbid X have not been well socialized, especially for those who have just entered the system
Opportunity 1. Increasing demand from graduate users
Threat 1. The rapid development of knowledge and the needs of graduate users requires adjustments to the vision, mission, goals and objectives 

Table  Component B:  Management, Leadership, Management System and Quality Assurance

Strength 1. There is an organizational structure and a clear description of duties and responsibilities2. Availability of work guidelines for managers

3. The implementation of feedback from students on the implementation of PBM

4. The implementation of graduate user feedback on graduate performance

Weakness 1. The work arrangements for functional and structural positions have not been implemented effectively2. The implementation of the activity program has not been effective and efficient

3. The results of the evaluation of the activity program have not been followed up professionally

4. Schedules that often do not match the academic calendar.

Opportunity 1. Public trust in institutions2. There is cooperation with various  stakeholders  and other community organizations

3. There is a commitment of lecturers and students in improving quality

4. Interaction between lecturers and students who support each other

Threat 1. Large operating costs2. Student demands for fast and efficient service

3. Competitiveness and high quality of graduates based on the results of the accreditation assessment (BAN-PT)

4. Greater demands on the quality of program management

Table Component C: Students and graduates

Strength 1. Study programs at AkbidX are in great demand by high school and vocational high school graduates. The regional need for health workers is getting higher
Weakness 1. Lack of interest in students to develop themselves2. Less active students in extra and intra-curricular activities

3. Lack of English language skills

4. Lack of student desire to take advantage of existing facilities

Opportunity 1. A large number of requests for graduates of health workers from various related institutions2. Various training to improve  student soft skills 

3. With tight competition in the selection process and good academic quality of prospective students while in high school or equivalent, there is an opportunity for Akbid X to produce quality graduates

4. Graduates can be used to provide information on job vacancies. Accreditation provides added value for Akbid X graduates to compete in the labor market

Threat 1. The emergence of educational institutions that guarantee employment2. In the next few years, the competition for jobs in the regions will be tougher as the number of graduates increases

Component Table D: HR

Strength 1. High commitment from lecturers in implementing Tridharma2. A clear and structured system of recruitment and selection of lecturers and supporting staff
Weakness 1. The ratio of lecturers to students is not appropriate2. The educational qualifications of permanent lecturers and supporting staff have not met market demands

3. Implementation of feedback on the curriculum from the community of graduate users has not been carried out optimally

Opportunity 1. Akbid X is committed to developing the curriculum in the study program through the provision of facilities, infrastructure and improving the quality of human resources
Threat 1. The development of science and the health sector is very fast2. The demands of society and graduate users on the relevance of the curriculum to the world of work

Table for Component E: Curriculum, Learning and Academic Atmosphere

Strength 1. Curriculum that is periodically adjusted to the needs in the workplace2. There are regulations in the process of working on the final project to speed up graduation

3. The curriculum is designed to develop students’ potential abilities

4. Use of multimedia facilities in the teaching and learning process

Weakness 1. Academic atmosphere and environment that is still not conducive2. Inadequate laboratory equipment

3. GBPP and SAP are not complete for all courses

4. The discrepancy between the syllabus and the courses delivered.

5. Many elective courses are not appropriate to be held

6. Instruments for monitoring staff and student activities are still weak

7. The feedback mechanism from students in the implementation of teaching is still weak

8. Lack of laboratory facilities can reduce student mastery and understanding

Opportunity 1. There is a DIKTI policy regarding the autonomy of the study program2. For curriculum revision, collaboration with more established institutions and with government and private institutions as users of graduates can also be obtained as well as soliciting feedback

3. Cooperation with private and government institutions, can be used as a place for internships or practice to increase student understanding and insight

Threat 1. The rapid development of technology causes the competence of graduates needed in the workplace to change2. Rapidly changing market needs require curriculum changes to follow market changes

3. The rapid development of science and technology causes the educational process to continue to adapt to be  up-to-date

Table Component F: Financing, Facilities, Infrastructure, and Information Systems

Strength 1. There is a grant fund for the development of laboratory activities and facilities2. Students have the option of collecting teaching materials in the library, as well as national and international accredited e-journals

3. Availability of competition grants for research and community service

Weakness 1. The collection of books for courses is still minimal2. Lack of laboratory equipment that supports lecturer research

3. The application of research results to the community is not yet optimal

4. The quantity of community service activities by lecturers is still low

5. Student involvement in lecturer research is still low

6. Student participation in scientific work competitions / PKM is still low

7. Not all lecturers publish their research results at the international level

8. Lack of the latest books/journals in the field of health in the library

Opportunity 1. The opportunity to get research and service funds from both DIKTI and other institutions is quite high2. The public’s need for the application of technology from health sciences is very high

3. Many community components require socialization/guidance related to scientific fields and health professions in Akbid X

4. There are requests from various agencies for health experts

5. The rapid development of technology in the health sector as a driving force for the creation of innovative research

Threat 1. The number of study programs at other universities2. The level of public awareness and appreciation of research results is still low

3. Competition for research/service funding is getting higher


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