Phases of Personality Development and Explanations

What Is Personality Development?

Definition of Personality

An individual’s personality is an aggregate conglomeration of the decisions we make throughout our lives (Bradshaw [ who? ]). There are inherent natural, genetic, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of our personality. There are inherent natural, genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of our personality. According to the process of socialization, “personality also colors our values, beliefs, and expectations … Hereditary factors that contribute to personality development do so as a result of interactions with the particular social environment in which people live.”

According to the socialization process, “personality also colors our values, beliefs, and expectations… heredity factors that contribute to personality development do so as a result of interactions with the particular social environment in which people live.” There are several personality types as Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers illustrated in several personalities typology tests . There are several personality types Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers described in several personality test typologies.

These tests only provide enlightenment based on the preliminary insight scored according to the answers judged by the parameters of the test. This test only provides enlightenment based on initial insight scored according to the answers judged by the test parameters. Other theories on personality development are Jean Piaget stages of development, and personality development in Sigmund Freud’s theory being formed through the interaction of id, ego, and super-ego . Other theories on personality development are Jean Piaget’s stages of development, and Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality development ‘which is formed through the interaction of the id, ego, and super-ego.

Personality from the Latin word persona = mask -> how a person looks from another person’s point of view, so not the real “self”

The definition of personality according to Allport: personality is a dynamic psychophysical system arrangement within the individual, which will determine the individual’s unique adjustment to the environment. Structure: that personality is built from interrelated traits. Dynamically shows a change in quality in the personality and psychophysical system consisting of habits, attitudes, values, beliefs (believe in), emotions (emotions), feelings and motives that are psychological, but have a basis physical in general. All three are motivational forces that will determine the type of adjustment the child will make (unique).

Personality Development According to Experts

1. Gordon Allport
Something that changes regularly, grows and develops.

2. Koenndjaraningrat
Is a characteristic of the character shown by a person from birth to old age.

3. George Herbert Mead
Human behavior develops and lasts a lifetime, by interacting with members of society.

4. Theodore M. Newcombe
is an organization of attitudes that is owned by a person, as a background to behavior

5. Krech and Crutchfield
Integrity of all individual characteristics in adapting to a constantly changing environment.

6. Adolf Heuken SJdkk
The overall pattern of all abilities, actions, and habits of a person, whether physical, mental, spiritual, emotional or social.

7. Yinger
Is the whole of a person and a system of certain tendencies that interact with a series of situations.

8. Horton
is the overall attitude, feeling, expression and temperament of a person.

9. Robert Sutherland
Is a relationship of interaction between society and culture.

10. Atkinson
is a pattern of behavior and a distinctive way of thinking that determines an individual’s adjustment to the environment.

Personality is an organization that is unique to each individual which is determined or influenced by innate and environmental factors so that it determines or influences behavior. Personality includes the habits, attitudes, and traits that a person has when dealing with other people.

Personality Structure and Typology

Personality structure

1. Id is the original personality system or is the human inner world that has no connection with the outside world For example: when we cough and are hungry
2. The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. For example: Conscience to decide whether to eat or not
3. The Super Ego is the aspect of personality that holds all the moral standards we get from our parents. Example: Giving consideration

Personality typology

Typology of personality is knowledge that classifies humans based on certain factors such as characteristics, physical, psychological and cultural.

Example :

1. Characteristics: shy, quiet, short-tempered, patient,
2. physical: body shape inherited from parents,
3. Psychic: thoughts and feelings,
4. Culture: identity, inheritance, behavior patterns

Some views on personality:

1. CG Jung’s typology classifies human personality into three groups, namely:

1. introfert is a type of personality where his interest is more towards his own thoughts and experiences. His actions are more influenced than within himself. People with this personality have a closed nature, not resistant to criticism, easily offended, difficult to get along with, difficult to understand others and like to exaggerate problems. .

2. Extroverts are personality types where their actions are more influenced by the outside world. People with this personality are open, agile in relationships, cheerful, friendly, spontaneous emotional expression, immune to criticism, do not really feel failure and do not do much self-analysis and criticism. .

3. Ambiver personality type is where the person has both basic types and it is difficult to fit into one type.

2. Typology of Hippocrates- Galenus, the most popular theory is the development of Empedocretus theory. This theory divides human personality based on four kinds of body fluids present in human body fluids, namely dry nature contained in chole (yellow bile), wet nature contained in melan chole (black bile), cold nature is found in phlegma (mucus), heat is found in sanguis (blood).

3. Typology of kretschmer: connecting between the physical constitution and the mental constitution (temperament) which will help the personality. The psychological constitution is divided into two, namely:

1. schizothym and cyclothym. Schizothim: difficult to contact with the outside world and self-closed. Shy, aloof, likes to think about himself and gets irritated easily.
2. Caaylothym: easy contact with the outside world, easy to adapt, easy to feel sad, open, active.

4.Heimen (emotional type)

1. emotional; easily shaken by feelings so easy to act.
2. Not emotional: a little feeling, not easily shaken by other feelings so it is not easy to act.

Personality Development Theory

Personality Development has been a major topic of interest to some of the most prominent thinkers in psychology. Personality development is what makes us unique, but how exactly do we become today?

To answer this question, many leading theorists developed stage theory to describe the various steps and stages that occur on the path of personality development. These Personality Development Theories focus on various aspects of personality development, including cognitive, social and moral development.

1. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development remains one of the most frequently cited in psychology, despite being the subject of considerable criticism. While many aspects of the theory have not stood the test of time, its core idea remains important today: children think differently than adults. Learn more about Piaget’s groundbreaking theory and the important contributions it made to our understanding of personality development.

2. Freud Stages of Psychosexual Development

Apart from being one of the best know thinkers in the field of personality development, Sigmund Freud remains one of the most controversial. In the well-known stage of the theory of psychosexual development, Freud suggested that personality develops gradually in relation to certain erogenous zones. Failure to successfully complete this stage, he suggests, will lead to personality problems in adulthood.

3. Freud’s Structural Personality Model

Freud’s concepts of the id, ego and superego have become well known in popular culture, despite the lack of support and great skepticism from many researchers. According to Freud, the three elements of personality—known as the id, ego, and superego—work together to create complex human behavior.

4. Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson’s theory of the eight stages of human development is one of the best known theories in psychology. While the theory is based on Freud’s stages of psychosexual development, Erikson chose to focus on the importance of social relationships in personality development. This theory also extends beyond childhood to look at developments across ages.

5. Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg developed a theory of personality development that focused on the growth of moral thought. Building on the two-stage process proposed by Piaget, Kohlberg extended the theory to include six distinct stages. While the theory has been criticized for several different reasons, including the possibility that it does not accommodate different genders and the same culture, Kohlberg’s theory remains important in our understanding of personality development.

Personality Development Phase

In the phases of personality development in each individual cannot be equated with one another, but in general it can be formulated as follows:

First Phase

The initial or first phase begins when the child is one to two years old, when the child begins to know himself. In this phase we can distinguish a person’s personality into two important parts, namely as follows:

1. The first part contains the basic elements of various attitudes called attitudes which are more or less permanent and not easy to change in the future. These elements are the basic personality structure and capital personality, these two elements are the basic nature of humans who have been possessed as biological inheritance from their parents.

2. The second part contains elements consisting of more flexible beliefs or assumptions that are volatile or can be revisited at a later date.

Second Phase

For this phase is a very effective phase in shaping and developing the talents that exist in a child. This phase starts from the age of two to three years. This phase is a phase in development wherein the sense of I that a noble child has developed in character according to the type of association in his environment, including the structure of values ​​and cultural structures.

In this phase, it lasts relatively long until the child reaches adulthood until the personality begins to appear with the typical types of behavior that are seen in the following cases.

1. Drives

This element is the center of the human will to carry out an activity which will then form certain motives to realize a desire. These drivers are distinguished by the will and passions, the will is the impulses that are cultural in nature which means that it is in accordance with the level of civilization and the level of one’s economy. While the passions are desires driven by biological needs such as appetite, lust (sexual), anger and others.

2. Instinct

is a natural urge that is attached to the nature of living things, for example a mother has a very strong instinct to have children, to take care of and raise them to adulthood. This instinct can be carried out on every living thing without the need to learn first as if it has merged with the nature of living things.

3. Vibration of the Heart (Emotions)

Emotions or vibrations of the heart is something abstract that is the source of human feelings. Emotions can be a measure of everything that exists in the human soul such as happy, sad, beautiful, harmonious and others.

4. Temperament

Temperament is a manifestation of the combination of the human heart and mind which can be seen from the facial expressions and movements of a person. This temperament is one of the elements of personality that begins to be real, can be seen and identified by others.

5. Intelligence (Intelligence Quetient-IQ)

Intelligence is the level of thinking ability possessed by a person, something that is included in intelligence is IQ, memories of knowledge, and experiences that have been obtained by someone doing socialization.

6. Talent

is basically something abstract that is obtained by a person because of the biological inheritance handed down by his ancestors, such as talent for art, sports, trade, politics and others. Talent is something that is very basic in developing the skills that exist in a person. Everyone has different talents even though they come from the same father and mother.

Third Phase

In the process of developing a person’s personality, this phase is the last which is marked by the stabilization of the behavior that is typical of that person. In this third phase, a relatively permanent development occurs, namely the formation of distinctive behaviors as an abstract personality. After the personality is permanently formed, it can be classified into three personality types namely normative personality, authoritarian personality and borderline personality.

1. Normative Personality (Normative Man)

This personality is an ideal personality type, where a person has strong principles to apply the central values ​​that exist within him as a result of previous socialization. A person has a normative personality if there is a socialization process between the treatment of himself and the treatment of others in accordance with the values ​​that exist in society. This type is characterized by a very high adaptability and can accommodate many aspirations from others.

2. Authoritarian Personality ( Authoritarian Man )

In this type, it is formed through the process of socialization of individuals who are more concerned with their own interests than the interests of others. This situation often occurs in only children, children who since childhood have received more support and protection from the environment of the people around them and children who have led their groups since childhood.

3. Border Personality (Marginal Man)

This personality is a relatively unstable personality type where the characteristics of the principles and behavior often undergo changes so that it is as if a person has more than one personality style. A person is said to have borderline personality if this person has cultural dualism, for example because of the marriage process or because of certain situations so that they have to serve two different cultural structures of society.

Personality Development Concept

For a moment we may ask what is Self-Concept? What’s the essence? What is it used for? and many more questions that may be asked about Personality Development above. Before answering this question, maybe we need to think about the following conditions for a moment.

If you have a DeskTop PC (Personal Computer) with PENTIUM IV 3 Ghz specifications, 40 GB Hard Disk, 256 MB DDRAM, 52 × 36 × 48 CDRW, Yamaha SoundCard, VGA GeForce, MS Windows XP Pro OS, and various other cutting-edge components . Then if the OS (Operating System) you used for the PC was MS DOS 3.0 instead of Windows XP, what happened to the PC? There are 2 possibilities, the first maybe your PC won’t run because the OS you are using is outdated. Second, your PC runs but does not work optimally so that the superiority of the components cannot be felt.

Well, that’s the concept of self. The self-concept is the Operating System for the NeckTop PC, namely the nervous system of our body. We are the most sophisticated computers but ask ourselves, “Have we often upgraded our self-concept or personality development?” Components of Self-Concept. Self-concept has 3 very important components because it will affect our lives from childhood until now, the components of personality development include:

1. Ideal Self. In the context of education, the ideal self that is often set by parents is that the child must get a perfect score (100 or A). in every test

2. Self Image. You will always act or behave according to the image that appears in the mirror / self image.

3. Self -Esteem. The more you love yourself, accept yourself, & respect yourself as a valuable & meaningful person, the higher your self -esteem.

The conclusion can be taken as follows: Your parents set your ideal self to get a score of 100 for a Math test, but you only get a score of 60 (Self-image). What happens now is that the ideal self is not in line with the self-image. This will definitely affect your self-esteem and also for your Personality Development.

How Self-Concept Is Formed.

The self-concept building is like a table, where there are the legs of its supporters. Those who play a major role in the “Table” include:

1. Who put the foot on? First the parents and then the teacher
2. How intense was the emotion at that time? Sad, embarrassed, happy, proud, etc
3. Reps. The more often, means the stronger the legs are attached.

Factors Affecting Personality

1. The natural environment is a pattern of community behavior that is influenced by the natural environment, for
example: Differences in climate and natural resources that cause humans to adapt to nature.

2. Genetics is that humans have a unique biology that is different from other people Example: Even twins have different characteristics

3. Culture is the values ​​and norms that govern behavior and influence the formation of personality.
Example: Western countries are allowed to wear open clothes, while eastern countries do not allow it

4. Traits are changes in behavior that are good and bad.

Honest, kind, positive thinking, likes to help.
Feeling jealous, feeling the smartest, lazy to work assignments, lying.


Alwisol. (2005) personality psychology Malang : publisher of Muhammadiyah University of Malang