Explanation of Metabolism, Anabolism and Catabolism

What is Metabolism, Anabolism, and Catabolism and Definitions

Definition of Metabolism

The term metabolism comes from the Greek, namely “Metabole” which means change or transformation. It is related to various processes in the body that convert food and other substances into energy and other metabolic byproducts that are used by the body. The change from a substance with special properties to another substance with new properties is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy.

Metabolism is all chemical reaction processes that occur in living things, starting from very simple one-celled creatures, such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, animals; to humans, creatures whose body structure is very complex. In this process, living things get, change, and use chemical compounds from their surroundings to sustain life.

Metabolism can also be interpreted as the overall chemical process that occurs in the body of an organism that begins with the initial substrate and ends with the final product. Metabolism aims to produce energy, which is useful for life activities both at the cellular level (cell division, transport of molecules into and out of cells) and the individual level (reading, writing, walking, running, etc.). Metabolism has four specific functions, namely:

1. To obtain chemical energy from the degradation of energy-rich food essences from the environment or from solar energy.
2. To convert nutrient molecules into precursor building units for cell macromolecules.
3. To combine these building units into proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, and other cell components.
4. To form and degrade the necessary biomolecules in specialized fungal cells.

Metabolism helps in digestive function as well as absorption of nutrients. It is most affected by nutrition, hydration, and physical activity. Each of these items is an important aspect of optimal metabolic health. When one is lacking, the metabolic rate also decreases. As a result, health will also have an effect.

Metabolism includes the synthesis (anabolism) and breakdown (catabolism) of complex organic molecules. Metabolism usually consists of steps involving enzymes, also known as metabolic pathways. Total metabolism is all the biochemical processes in organisms. Cell metabolism includes all chemical processes in cells. Without metabolism, living things cannot survive. The products of metabolism are called metabolites. The branch of biology that studies the overall composition of metabolites at a stage of development or in a part of the body is called metabolomics.

Metabolism includes the process of synthesis and decomposition of compounds or components in living cells. The process of synthesis is called anabolism and the process of decomposition is called catabolism. All metabolic reactions are catalyzed by enzymes, including simple reactions such as the breakdown of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide; the process of entering and removing chemical substances from and into cells through membranes; a long and complicated process of protein biosynthesis; or the process of breaking down food ingredients in the digestive system from the mouth, stomach, intestines, and the absorption of the decomposition products through the intestinal wall, and their distribution to all parts of the body that need them.

Another important aspect of metabolism is its role in the detoxification process, namely the reaction mechanism for converting toxic substances into non-toxic compounds that can be removed from the body.

Anabolism is distinguished from catabolism in several ways: anabolism is the process of synthesizing small molecules into larger molecules, while catabolism is the opposite, namely the process of breaking down large molecules into small molecules; anabolism is a process that requires energy, whereas catabolism is a process that releases energy; anabolism is a reduction reaction, while catabolism is an oxidation reaction; Often the end product of anabolism is the starting compound for catabolism. The function of catabolism is to provide raw materials for the synthesis of other molecules and to provide chemical energy.

Definition of Anabolism

Anabolism is the process of converting simple chemical compounds into chemical compounds or complex molecules. These events require energy from the outside, then that energy is used to bind simple compounds into more complex compounds. Thus in this process, the required energy will not be lost. However, it is stored in the form of chemical bonds in newly formed compounds or complex materials. The energy used in anabolism can be light energy or chemical energy. The anabolism of light energy is called photosynthesis, while the anabolism of chemical energy is called chemosynthesis.

Reactions in cells can be grouped into two categories. First, anabolic reactions are formation reactions, namely the synthesis of large molecules from simple/small molecules. The process of anabolism requires energy, and the process is called an endogenic reaction. Second, catabolic reactions are breakdown reactions. Catabolism is the breakdown of large molecules into simpler ones accompanied by the release of energy called exergonic reactions. The total sum of anabolic and catabolic reactions is called metabolism (formation and breakdown). An example of a catabolic process is respiration, while an example of an anabolic process is photosynthesis (Green et al, 1988).

Anabolism is distinguished from catabolism in several ways, namely:

1. Anabolism is the process of synthesizing small chemical molecules into larger molecules, while catabolism is the process of breaking down large molecules into small molecules.
2. Anabolism is a process that requires energy while catabolism is a process that releases energy.
3. Anabolism is a reduction reaction while catabolism is an oxidation reaction.
4. Often the end product of anabolism is the starting compound for the catabolism process. (Wiradikusumah, 1985).

Some living things such as plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria can obtain energy from sunlight through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process of transforming radiant energy into chemical energy. Sunlight consists of particles called photons, where each photon contains a certain amount of energy. The amount of energy in the photon depends on the wavelength of the light, where the smaller the wavelength, the greater the energy contained in the photon. For example, photons from blue light contain a higher energy than photons from red light (Fardiaz, 1992).

Photosynthesis is the process by which carbon monoxide and water under the influence of light are converted into organic compounds containing carbon and rich in energy. The process of photosynthesis aims to form carbohydrates, and the following reactions apply: (Harjadi, 1979).

The process of photosynthesis aims to form carbohydrates

Leaves are one of the plant organs that grow from the stem, generally green in color and mainly function as a catcher of energy from sunlight through photosynthesis. Leaves are the most important organs for plants to carry out their lives because plants are obligate autotrophs. Plants must supply their own energy needs through the conversion of light energy into chemical energy (Audesirk & Audesirk, 1989).

The epidermis is a layer of cells that covers all parts of the plant body. The epidermis protects the plant from dryness and injury. Epidermal cells secrete a waxy substance ( cutin ) which forms a thick layer called the cuticle. These cuticles are in the cell wall and help reduce water loss during evaporation and block the entry of pathogens (Green, et al, 1988).

The epidermis of leaves in various plants varies in the number of layers, shape, structure, arrangement of stomata, the appearance of trichomes and their arrangement and the presence of specialized cells. Because the leaf structure is usually flat, it is distinguished between the epidermal tissue that is on both surfaces. The leaf surface which is closer to the internodes above and which usually faces upward is called the adaxial surface and the other surface is known as the abaxial surface (Fahn, 1991).

In the upper and lower epidermis found small pores called stomata (singular: stoma). Inland plants, the number of stomata on the lower epidermis of the leaf is more than the upper epidermis which is an adaptation of plants to minimize water loss from the leaves. Stomata play a role in gas exchange (O2 and CO2 ). In addition, it also plays a role in regulating water removal from plants (Audesirk & Audesirk, 1983).

Stomata are located in the epidermal tissue. Each stomata hole is surrounded by 2 guard cells. These guard cells regulate the opening and closing of stomata based on changes in glucose concentration as a result of photosynthetic activity. Guard cells are flexible. As the osmotic pressure increases, the water concentration decreases and water moves to the guard cells by osmosis. This causes the guard cells to swell and the stomata to open. Changes in the size of stomata can be affected by light, the concentration of carbon dioxide and water. Most of the transpiration and evaporation of plants occur through the stomata. If the stomata open wider, there will be more water loss (Audesirk & Audesirk, 1983).

The opening and closing of stomata must be balanced between the demand for carbon dioxide and the loss of water. In general, stomata open during the day and close at night. In addition, the stomata will also close when the plant is dehydrated (Purves et al, 1992).

The second process of photosynthesis is the dark reaction. It is called the dark reaction because the reaction occurs in the absence of light. The dark reactions of photosynthesis take place in chloroplasts. During the dark reaction, complex molecules of sugar made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are made of simple molecules of carbohydrates and hydrogen NADPH 2. Both have been produced in the light reactions. PGA is reduced to phosphoglyceraldehyde, a 3-carbon compound that living cells can use as a precursor to the synthesis of all the countless substances of life. Once PGAL is formed, it has several alternatives available. Some of the 3 carbons of PGAL can be simplified to 6 carbon sugars, such as fructose and glucose these may be further simplified to a common storage product, or perhaps by enzymes converted to fats or amino acids (Ritchie & Carola, 1983).

The things that are needed for the photosynthesis process to run, include:

1. Light
2. Chlorophyll, photosynthetic pigment
3. plastid organization
4. carbon dioxide
5. Water

Definition of Catabolism

Catabolism is the reaction of breaking down or breaking down complex (organic) compounds into simple (inorganic) compounds that produce energy. To be used by cells, the energy produced must be converted into ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate). ATP is an adenine group linked to three phosphate groups. The release of phosphate groups produces energy that is used directly by cells, which is used to carry out chemical reactions, growth, transportation, movement, reproduction, and others.

An example of catabolism is cellular respiration, which is the process by which food is broken down to produce energy. As the raw materials for respiration are carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids and as a result is CO2 (carbon dioxide, water and energy). Respiration is carried out by all living cells, animal cells and plant cells.

Is the process of breaking down or breaking down complex compounds into simpler compounds by producing energy that can be used by organisms in their activities. Organic compounds store energy in a series of atoms. With the help of enzymes, cells regularly break down simpler molecules with less energy. There are two ways for organisms to produce energy, including the following:

1. Cellular respiration is using oxygen as organic fuel, the whole process of cellular respiration is as follows: Organic Compounds + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
2. Fermentation or anaerobic respiration is the process of breaking down molecules that takes place without the use of oxygen.

Examples of Catabolic Reactions

Conversion of glucose into CO2 and H2O in aerobic respiration that takes place in cells. The breakdown of glucose requires oxygen and releases a certain amount of energy. The energy is then used for various activities.

Conclusion Anabolism And Catabolism

From the results of the description above, it is concluded that anabolic reactions occur in energy storage, so anabolism is an endergonic reaction. An endergonic reaction is a reaction that requires energy. If the reaction requires energy in the form of heat, the reaction is called an endothermic reaction.

In contrast to catabolism, catabolism is a reaction that releases energy. So the reaction is exorgenic. If a reaction releases energy in the form of heat, it is called an exothermic reaction

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