LBW Full Form Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

LBW Full Form Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

LBW Full Form: Low Birth Weight

Low Birth Weight Definition

A Baby’s weight is categorized as very low if the number is below 1500 grams. Epidemiologically, this LBW condition is very rare. Only 1.5 percent of babies are born in this condition. Babies in this LBW condition will look much smaller than other babies. One of the reasons behind this condition is premature birth.

Some of the risk factors that put a baby at a higher risk of having a very low birth weight include:

  • Asian–African race
  • Mother’s age is under 17 years old or over 35 years old
  • twin birth
  • drug use, alcohol abuse, and smoking habits in pregnant women
  • low socioeconomic level

According to SGT University Low Birth Weight: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Low Birth Weight Reason

The condition of babies born with very low weight (LBW), generally caused by premature birth or under 37 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy, the most rapid weight gain of babies occurs in the 3rd trimester.

The shorter the gestational age, the shorter the period of weight gain. Based on the data, most births of LBW babies occurred before 30 weeks of age.

In addition to premature birth, LBW can also occur in cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which is a condition in which a baby’s development is impaired while in the womb. The cause can be due to placental abnormalities, an unhealthy mother during pregnancy, pregnancy abnormalities, or an unhealthy mother’s lifestyle. This unhealthy lifestyle can be sourced from smoking habits, drinking alcohol, to drug use.

Low Birth Weight Diagnosis

Very low birth weight (LBW) can actually be predicted since in the womb. Some of the checks that can lead to the potential for LBW are:

  • The size of the fundus height (the upper limit of the enlargement of the uterus on the mother’s abdomen) which is smaller than the normal value that should be at her gestational age
  • Ultrasound (USG) which shows the baby’s belly circumference and head circumference that is smaller than it should be

Low Birth Weight Symptoms

Immediately after birth, the baby will be weighed immediately. If the baby’s weight shows a number below 1500 grams, the baby is categorized as very low birth weight or LBW.

In LBW babies, the baby’s head will generally look much larger than the rest of his body. Because the fat under the skin is thin, the lining of the baby’s blood vessels is generally easy to see.

Low Birth Weight Treatment

Handling LBW infants includes various things, namely:

  • Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
  • Setting the temperature of the baby’s crib to maintain a normal body temperature and avoid hypothermia
  • Giving fluids through an IV to prevent dehydration
  • Giving breast milk or other nutrition through a feeding tube
  • Provide therapy according to complications that occur. For example, giving dextrose fluids through an IV if the baby has the potential to experience hypoglycemia or low sugar levels.

As they get older, babies with LBW can experience developmental delays. This is normal. Even so, for optimal development, the baby must be handled in the right way. For example, in the case of speech delays, speech therapy or speech therapy can be assisted.

Low Birth Weight Complications

Complications that can occur in babies born with very low weight (LBW) include:

  • Low oxygen levels at birth
  • Hypothermia or very low body temperature
  • Difficulty gaining weight
  • Vulnerable to infection
  • Respiratory disorders
  • Nervous system disorders such as cerebral hemorrhage
  • Gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
  • Sudden infant death

As the baby gets older, various disorders can occur to accompany his development, such as:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Blindness
  • Hearing impairment
  • Developmental barriers

Low Birth Weight Prevention

To minimize the risk of very low birth weight (LBW) babies, various things can be done:

  • Regular check-ups during pregnancy
  • Maintain a nutritious diet during pregnancy
  • Avoid consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs

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