Hives Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Hives Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Hives (urticaria) are reactions on the skin that cause red bumps to appear. Here are the symptoms, causes, and treatment.

Hives Definition

Hives or urticaria are reactions on the skin that cause red bumps to appear.

Initially, red bumps appear on one part of the body, then spread. The shape and size also varies.

The rash on biduran usually feels very itchy, and sometimes it can also feel sore.

Symptoms of hives can last for hours and gradually disappear within a few days.

Acute hives will heal in less than six weeks.

Acute hives are a common condition, especially in children and women aged 30-60 years and those with a history of allergies.

Meanwhile, chronic hives last more than six weeks or are recurring for several months or even years.

Chronic hives can be a symptom of another underlying disease, such as lupus or thyroid disease.

Hives Reason

The cause of hives is high levels of histamine and other chemical elements that are released into the skin.

Then, histamine and other chemical elements make blood vessels widen so that blood flow increases.

This is what causes hives and the skin looks red.

Based on the duration and severity of symptoms, there are two types of hives, namely acute hives and chronic hives.

  • Acute hives

In acute hives, the symptoms will disappear in no more than six weeks.

Some causes of acute hives are unknown. However, there are several things that are recognized as triggers for acute hives, namely:

  • food allergies, for example seafood
  • environmental factors, for example the temperature is too hot or too cold, sunlight
  • pollen inhalation
  • due to exposure to certain chemicals
  • infections, both mild ones such as colds to serious infections such as HIV
  • insect bites
  • side effects of certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics
  • stress

Acute hives caused by food, drink, or drugs are easier to avoid.

In contrast to acute hives caused by stress.

Factors that cause this one more difficult to avoid.

  • Chronic hives

In chronic biduran conditions, the symptoms that appear can last more than six weeks.

Same with acute hives, the cause is not known with certainty, but it can also be the same as the cause of acute hives.

Chronic hives are thought to be related to the presence of antibodies in the body that trigger the release of antihistamines.

For this reason, most cases of chronic hives are associated with autoimmune conditions, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Apart from that, chronic hives can also occur as a result of liver infections, thyroid gland disorders, and the presence of parasites in the digestive tract.

Chronic hives are recurring. The bumps will appear and disappear within a certain time.

Several factors trigger chronic hives, including:

  • autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis)
  • chronic infections (hepatitis B and C, EBV)
  • endocrine disorders (Grave’s disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis)
  • hot air temperature
  • consumption of certain drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and pain relievers
  • consuming drinks containing alcohol or caffeine
  • stress
  • wearing clothes that are too tight for a long time
  • consuming additives in food or drink
  • insect bites or stings

Hives Symptom

Symptoms of hives are the appearance of bumps and rashes which are usually very itchy. Their sizes and locations vary.

Hives can disappear in one part of the body and reappear in other parts of the body.

Treatment of hives is usually not necessary because it will improve within two days.

However, this bumpy skin allergy can get worse due to the following factors:

  • consuming liquor
  • consuming caffeine
  • stress
  • hot air temperature
  • cold air temperature

If the symptoms of hives get worse and don’t go away within two days, consult a doctor immediately.

It could be, special handling is needed to relieve it.

Hives Diagnosis

The cause of hives can be ascertained after the doctor performs a physical examination and collects information about the symptoms being experienced.

This is important so that sufferers can avoid future causes.

Questions that the doctor will ask, for example when and how hives occur and if something new happens.

For example, have you recently eaten food that you have never eaten before?

If biduran is suspected as an allergic reaction, the doctor will do a blood test and skin prick test. Both are needed to find out the allergen.

Unfortunately, more than half of cases of hives have no known cause.

If the condition of hives recurs frequently, the doctor may suggest a series of tests to find out the cause, such as:

  • Allergy Test

An allergy test examination in the form of a pinch or patch test on the skin can be done to find out the exact cause of the appearance of red bumps on the body.

  • Complete Blood Test

Examination of a complete blood test, including examination of the sedimentation rate (ESR), liver function tests, thyroid hormones, and certain antibody tests.

This is done in order to find out the cause of hives, whether due to infection, hormonal disorders, or autoimmune problems.

  • Skin Test

Taking a skin sample or skin biopsy can be considered if the cause of hives is suspected due to the condition of vasculitis, namely inflammation of the blood vessels.

Hives Treatment

Most cases of hives do not require treatment. The rash is usually mild enough that it will heal within a few days.

However, if treatment is needed, it will be carried out according to the factors that cause hives and the level of symptoms and the type of hives experienced.

Overcoming Acute Biduran

Symptoms of this type of hives last no more than six weeks. Usually, what is given as a way to treat acute hives includes:

  • Antihistamine

Antihistamines will stop itching and reduce the itch by blocking histamine, a substance that is produced when allergies or infections occur.

Examples of these drugs are cetirizine and loratadine. We recommend that pregnant women do not take this drug because the effects are not known.

  • Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are given to inhibit the performance of the immune system so that they can reduce severe hives. An example of this drug is prednisolone.

It is not recommended to take this drug for a long time because it can cause side effects, such as hypertension, cataracts and diabetes.

Overcoming Chronic Hives

Treatment of chronic hives aims to control the symptoms that arise and avoid triggers that can worsen the condition.

Treatment and ways to deal with chronic hives include:

  • H1 and H2 antihistamines

As long as the symptoms last, you should take H1 antihistamines regularly. The dosage of the drug is adjusted according to the existing symptoms.

If this drug does not relieve symptoms, before giving H2 antihistamines, your doctor will give youRUPTADINE.

These drugs are still H1 antihistamines, but they are more effective at treating chronic hives.

H2 antihistamines can be taken if the rash gets worse.

This drug will narrow blood vessels which can reduce redness of the skin.

Side effects of H2 antihistamines include diarrhea, headaches, and dizziness.

  • Corticosteroids

Chronic hives can be treated with corticosteroids.

However, this drug cannot be used in the long term because it has side effects.

Such as, increased appetite, mood swings, and difficulty sleeping.

  • Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

These drugs can help relieve swelling and redness of the skin.

It can be used as a substitute for corticosteroids because the side effects are milder, namely headaches and nausea.

  • cyclosporine

Cyclosporine works in a similar way to corticosteroids. Cyclosporine suppresses the adverse effects due to autoimmune.

Side effects include high blood pressure, kidney problems, increased cholesterol levels, and headaches.

This drug can be given in the form of capsules or syrup.

  • Omalazimab

For hives that don’t respond to antihistamine treatment, omaluzimab may be used as an alternative drug.

Omaluzimab works to reduce the type of antibody that plays a role in causing hives. This drug is given in the form of an injection.

  • Antidepressant Cream

Tricyclic antidepressant creams, such as doxepin, can be used to treat itching in hives. However, this cream has side effects such as dizziness and drowsiness.

Apart from drugs, here are several ways to deal with hives, including:

  • do not scratch the bumps or rashes
  • Avoid using soaps that contain harsh chemicals, such as fragrances, alcohol
  • wear clothes that are loose and smooth, such as cotton
  • avoid trigger factors such as caffeinated drinks, painkillers, stress, extreme temperatures such as too hot or cold
  • apply moisturizing or cooling cream to the skin area affected by hives
  • Don’t forget to record the activities you do, including the food and drinks you consume so you can find out the exact triggers

If you already know the causes or factors that can exacerbate hives, avoid these triggers.

If you suspect hives because you are taking certain drugs, contact the doctor who gave it because you have to find a replacement drug.

If your chronic hives are caused by stress, try relaxation techniques to reduce stress levels and relieve symptoms.

Hives Complications

Hives can interfere with a person’s activities, especially if hives appear frequently. Some of the complications that can arise include:

  • Angioedema

Complications of angioedema can occur in acute or chronic hives.

Angioedema is swelling in the lower layers of the skin due to fluid buildup, for example in the eyelids, lips, around the genitals, hands and feet.

Angioedema conditions can develop into life-threatening conditions when there is swelling of the tongue and larynx, which blocks the airway.

For this reason, immediate treatment and administration of therapy using antihistamines and corticosteroids can help reduce the symptoms of angioedema.

  • Anaphylaxis

Anaphylactic reactions are severe allergic reactions that can be life-threatening. This condition appears suddenly and requires immediate treatment.

Symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction include swelling in the eyes, lips, hands, feet, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreased consciousness.

  • Emotional Disorders and Decreased Quality of Life

Not everyone can accept the conditions they are experiencing. Having hives that often recur can affect quality of life.

Not infrequently, some sufferers feel depressed and anxious due to conditions that cannot completely disappear.

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