Definition of biotic components in an ecosystem and examples, Kinds

Definition of biotic components in an ecosystem

Biotics is a term that is usually used to refer to living things (organisms). A biotic component is a component that composes an ecosystem in addition to abiotic (inanimate) components.

The biotic component is an ecosystem component in the form of living things that live in an ecosystem. For example: Humans, Animals, Plants, and other microorganisms including biotic components. Each component has its own role that is closely related to meeting the need for food. This causes a balance in the ecosystem. In the ecosystem, biotic components have specific roles (niches) and tasks. The biotic components in the ecosystem based on their roles are grouped into three, namely as producers, consumers, and decomposers (decomposers).

The biotic component is an environmental component that includes living things. Basically, we can classify living things on the basis of certain types, for example humans and plants. We can see living things based on their size and are classified into microorganisms and macroorganisms. Humans are biotic factors that have the strongest influence on this earth, both in the influence of folding and destroying, or in accelerating the spread of plants and animals.

Kinds of biotic components

Based on the role and function, living things are divided into three types, namely:


Producers are living things that are able to convert inorganic substances into organic substances (autotrophs). This process can only be carried out by plants with chlorophyll by means of photosynthesis. Examples of producers are algae, mosses and green plants. Producers make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process of forming food in plants and organisms with chlorophyll with the help of sunlight. The process of photosynthesis in plants occurs in the leaves, cell organelles called chloroplasts which contain green leaves (chlorophyll) that function to capture sunlight. The process of photosynthesis requires water and carbon dioxide. Water is obtained from the surrounding environment with the help of roots. Carbon dioxide is taken from the air through the stomata. Stomata are generally located on the underside of the leaf.

The following is a photosynthesis reaction:

1. Sunshine
2. 6CO2 + 6H2O ^ C6H12O6 + 6O2
3. Carbon dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen

Glucose formed from the process of photosynthesis will be circulated to all parts of the plant. Glucose is used for various life activities, namely as follows:

1. Repairing damaged body parts
2. cell division
3. Food reserves, namely glucose that has not been used will be stored in certain body parts, for example in stems (sugarcane), roots (cassava, sweet potatoes, taro), seeds and fruit.


Consumer means a consumer, that is, an organism that cannot compose its own nutrients, but uses or uses nutrients made by other organisms. These other organisms can be plants, animals or the remains of organisms. Included in the components are almost all groups of animals, non -chlorophyll plants, and humans.

Examples of consumer plants are princess rope and corpse flowers.
Heterotroph components consist of organisms that utilize organic materials provided by other organisms as food. Heterotroph components are also called macro consumers (phagotrophic because the food they eat is smaller in size. Heterotrophs are classified as humans, animals, fungi, and microbes. Food ingredients produced by producers are directly or indirectly a source of food for other organisms. Organisms that directly take nutrients from green plants are herbivores, level I consumer herbivores, level II consumer carnivores, and so on.


Decomposers are organisms that break down organic matter from dead organisms. Decomposers are also called macro consumers (Sapotrophs) because the food they eat is larger. Decomposing organisms absorb some of the decomposition products and release simple materials that can be reused by producers. The decomposers are bacteria and fungi.
There are also decomposers called Detritivores, which are decomposers that eat the remains of organic matter, for example, woodlice. There are 3 types of decomposition, namely:

1. Aerobic: Oxygen is an electron acceptor/oxidant
2. Anaerobic: Oxygen is not involved. Organic matter as electron acceptor.
3. Fermentation: Anaerobic but oxidized organic matter is also an electron acceptor. These components are in one place and interact to form an orderly ecosystem. For example, in an aquarium ecosystem, this ecosystem consists of fish as heterotrophic components, aquatic plants as autotroph components, plankton floating in water as decomposers, while the abiotic components include water, sand, rocks, minerals and oxygen dissolved in water.

Living things that can only live and reproduce in a suitable or suitable environment, which is also called a habitat. In an ecosystem, each organism has a specific function and task. This is known as nisia. Therefore, the biotic components of an ecosystem can be grouped based on the above.

1. Producers

Producers are organisms that can arrange organic compounds (which contain living materials) from inorganic (does not contain living materials) into their own food. In forming their own food, these organisms are assisted by sunlight and we often call autotrophs. Also included in this group are the types of bacteria, green plants and blue-green algae.

2. Consumers

Consumers are organisms that cannot make their own food substances, and depend on other organisms to meet their food needs. These organisms are called heterotrophs. The components in the heterotroph group are humans, fungi, animals, and microbes. Consumer organisms can be classified based on the type of food into herbivores (plant eaters), carnivores (meat-eaters), and omnivores (everything eaters). Based on the level, consumers can be divided into:
– Primary consumers are those who eat directly from producers
. Example: all herbivores and omnivores such as: rats, goats, caterpillars, cows, etc.
– Secondary consumers are primary consumers
Example: some carnivores and omnivores such as: snakes, frogs, pangolins, cheetahs, chickens, tigers, etc.
– Tertiary consumers are secondary consumers.
Example: some carnivores and omnivores such as: eagles, octopuses, sharks, etc.

3. Decomposers

Decomposers are called decomposers. Allows organic substances to decompose and be recycled back into nutrients. Which includes the reformer group are bacteria and fungi.

4. Detrivores

Detrivores are organisms that feed on organic particles. Detritus is the breakdown of flaky plant and animal tissue. Which includes this group, snails, earthworms, centipedes, sea cucumbers and keluwing.

Ecosystem Components

Ecosystem is a unity between communities that form reciprocal relationships or interact with each other. Ecosystems are composed of biotic and abiotic components. Biotic components consist of producers, consumers and decomposers. While abiotic consists of solar energy, wind, minerals, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide etc.

In an ecosystem, there are units of living things called individuals, populations and communities. An individual is a single living thing. A population is a collection of individuals of the same kind living in a certain area and time. A community is a collection of different populations that live in a certain place and time.

Biotic and Abiotic Components

The biotic and abiotic components are a unity and influence each other, meaning that they are interdependent.

Biotic and Abiotic Components

1. The interdependence of biotic and abiotic components

Green plants require sunlight to carry out the process of photosynthesis. As materials for photosynthesis, carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts are needed. On the other hand, plants release oxygen into the air as one of the products of photosynthesis.

2. Interdependence between producers, consumers and decomposers

In a plant ecosystem is a producer that produces a source of food for all living things. All living things are food for producers. For example, rice plants are eaten by caterpillars as consumers 1, then caterpillars are eaten by birds as consumers 2, then dead birds will rot and be decomposed by decomposers, and will become substances needed by plants to photosynthesize. From this groove, birds get food from rice plants. Likewise, rice plants indirectly get food from birds that died from rotting.

In ecosystems known as food chains and food jarring. The food chain is the sequence of events eaten and eaten between living beings initiated by the producer. While jarring food jarring is a relationship between one food chain with another that has a connection.

Relationship between biotic and abiotic components

In the ecosystem, there is interdependence between components, so that if one component is disturbed, it affects the other components. An ecosystem is said to be balanced if the number of producers, consumers I and consumers II is balanced. Description of the arrow: eaten.

The relationship between biotic components and abiotic components

The existence of abiotic components in an ecosystem greatly affects the biotic components. For example: plants can live well if the environment provides the elements they need, for example water, air, light, and mineral salts. Likewise, the biotic components greatly affect the abiotic components, namely the plants in the forest greatly affect the presence of water, so that springs can survive, the soil becomes fertile. But if there are no plants, the water cannot be held back so that it can cause landslides and become barren. Abiotic components that do not depend on biotics include: gravity, sun, air pressure.

The relationship between biotic components and biotic components

Among producers, consumers and decomposers are interdependent. No living being can live without other beings. Every living thing needs other living things to support each other, either directly or indirectly. The interdependence of producers, consumers and decomposers occurs through:

1. The food chain
is the event of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem in a certain order.

2. A food web
is a collection of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem. For example, the food web below consists of 5 (five) food chains.

3. The food pyramid
is a comparison between producers, consumers I, consumers II, and so on. In this pyramid, the more you go to the top, the smaller the biomass.

4. Energy flow
is the transfer of energy from a high place to a low place. That is from sunlight and then producers, to level I consumers, to level II consumers to decomposers. While minerals form a cycle. The energy released is very small because every organism needs the energy to meet its needs.

5. The energy cycle
is the movement of matter from one place to another. It will eventually return to where the substance came from. Example see the water cycle below!

Ecosystem balance can occur when there is a reciprocal relationship between ecosystem components. Look at the comparison chart of the number of producers, herbivores and carnivores!

Initially producers, herbivores and carnivores were in a certain place. Plants are the most abundant producers. If there are things that change the environment, the organism will not change, but if the number of organisms is not controlled it will harm other organisms.

Organism Interaction Pattern

Interaction is the relationship of living things with one another. Patterns of human interaction can be divided into 3, namely:

1. Predation. The definition of predation is an interaction of living things where a living thing eats another living thing or the law of eating and being eaten. Organisms that eat are called predators while living things that are eaten are called prey.

2. Competition. The definition is the interaction between living things that compete with each other for food.

3. Symbiosis. The definition is a relationship between two types of living things that are mutually beneficial (mutualism), one benefits and one is harmed (parasitism), and one benefits and the other is not harmed (commensalism).

Various Ecosystems

Based on the process of occurrence of the ecosystem can be divided into two, namely:

1. Natural ecosystem. The definition of a natural ecosystem is an ecosystem that occurs without human intervention or occurs naturally. For example lakes, forests, deserts etc.

2. Artificial ecosystem. The definition of an artificial ecosystem is an ecosystem that occurs because it is made by humans. For example: aquariums, ponds, gardens, rice fields etc.

Based on the location, the ecosystem can be divided into;

1. Terrestrial ecosystem
2. Marine/saltwater ecosystem
3. Freshwater Ecosystem

In an ecosystem, habitat is known. Habitat is a place where living things live. Based on their ability to make food, living things can be divided into two, namely autotrophs and heterotrophs. Autotrophs are living things that can make their own food, for example, plants that can photosynthesize. living things that cannot make their own food, for example, animals and humans. Based on the type of food, heterotrophs are divided into three, namely herbivores (plant eaters), carnivores (meat-eaters), and omnivores (everything eaters).

Biotic Factors

Biotic factors are living factors that include all living things on earth, both plants, animals and humans. In an ecosystem, plants act as producers, animals act as consumers, and microorganisms act as decomposers.

There are several factors that affect biotic, among others:

1. Biotic factors are living factors that include all living things on earth, both plants and animals.

2. Biotic factors include: Interaction between plants in the community, Interaction of animals and plants in the community, and Interaction of humans and plants.

Biotic factors also include levels of organisms that include individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. The levels of living organisms in the ecosystem will interact with each other, influencing each other to form a system that shows unity. In more detail, the levels of organization of living things are as follows. Look at the Image Below.


Individuals are single organisms such as: a mouse, a cat, a guava tree, a coconut tree, and a human. In defending life, each species is faced with critical life problems. For example, an animal must obtain food, defend itself against its natural enemies, and take care of its young. To overcome this problem, organisms must have special structures such as spines, wings, sacs, or horns. Animals also display certain behaviors, such as making nests or migrating long distances in search of food. Such structures and behaviors are called adaptations.

1. Physiological adaptation
Physiological adaptation is the adjustment of the body’s physiological functions to maintain its life. Examples are as follows.
-Smell glands: Civets can secrete a foul odor by spraying fluid through the side of the anal canal. This secret serves to escape from the enemy.

2. Behavioral
adaptation Behavioral adaptation is an adaptation that is based on behavior. Examples are as follows:
– Pretend to sleep or die: Some animals pretend to be asleep or dead, for example the Virginia squirrel. These animals often lie helpless with their eyes closed when approached by a dog.

3. Population
A collection of individuals of the same species living in a certain area and time is called a population. For example, the population of coconut trees in the Tegakan village in 1989 was 2552 stems.

Biotic Factors on Plant Growth

Biotic factors are factors that have a beneficial or detrimental effect on other plants and animals on agricultural crops.

a. Plant/plant factors

Competition and complementarity between plants: competition will occur if between plants need nutrients, water, and sunlight. To obtain maximum plant yields, a maximum leaf area is required to be able to take full advantage of the available sunlight, nutrients and water. Narrow spacing reduces yield per plant, while wide spacing reduces total yield per unit area because there are fewer plants. Therefore, optimum spacing is very important in crop cultivation practice. However, in the case of planting different crops together such as mixed cultivation, the yield is better. For example, co-planting legumes with cereals.
Competition between weeds and plants: Weeds are plants that grow where they are not desired (both time and place are desired. Weeds can reduce crop yields because they compete with plants for water, nutrients and sunlight. In addition, the presence of weeds between plants causes an increase in labor costs for weeding and equipment costs, making harvesting difficult, reducing quality and marketing, being a host for insects, functions, viruses and bacteria, and some types of weeds that poison humans and livestock.

In non-irrigated areas, competition between weeds and large plants for water. The transpiration coefficient for Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is 813, while for sorghum it is only 430. By freeing the soil from weeds, in one acre of soil with a depth of 6 feet, 300-500 tons of water can be saved. In irrigated areas, competition occurs for nutrients.
Weeds in rich soil deplete soil moisture and nutrients. In addition, weeds will also block drainage channels and block the flow of water in the pant and rivers. Weed control must be done to get water flow in the pant and river. Weed control must be done to get high crop yields.

Plants and parasites: Parasites of plants, to be able to live depends on the host plant. Under favorable circumstances, the parasite attempts to influence the plant community. For example, parasites in the form of fungi, bacteria, viruses and so on cause different types of diseases in agricultural crops. Microorganisms obtain their food through the overhaul of dead plants and animal remains (saprophytes) or by attacking living plants and animals (parasites). In obtaining their food, parasitic organisms kill the tissues and cells of the host plant so that the plant or its parts are damaged and die, or interfere with the metabolic processes of living plants. In some cases they also produce toxic substances. Disease control can be done by planting resistant varieties,

b. Animals / Animals.

Soil animals including: protozoa, nematodes, snails, and insects are an important part of the plant root environment. All these organisms help in the process of decomposition of soil organic matter and are used for the purposes of life. Some of the soil animals in the form of insects and nematodes can damage crops as pests, even after harvesting the seeds can be damaged by insects. The average yield loss due to insect attack has been reported to be approximately 20% worldwide.
Beneficial animals: many plants are pollinated by insects. Bees and bees are probably very important plant pollinators. Moths and butterflies are also capable of pollination. Earthworms can improve soil aeration and drainage so as to improve plant growth. Small and large animals also greatly affect plant life because animals consume plants as food. Agricultural crops located near the habitats of these animals will suffer great damage if control/protection is not carried out.

Examples of biotic and abiotic relationships

Biotic and Abiotic are components that make up an ecosystem. Biotic and abiotic are two factors that influence the development and natural phenomena in an ecosystem. These two factors coexist. All inanimate objects such as stones, soil and gravel are abiotic components, while animate objects such as birds, butterflies, and flowers are biotic components.
Based on the object, natural phenomena can be divided into two, namely biotic natural symptoms and abiotic natural symptoms.

Example of the relationship between biotic and abiotic

1. Every plant takes water from its environment (from the soil), but plants also release water into the environment (to the air) in the form of water vapor. Together with water vapor from other sources, clouds will form and it will rain. and later the water seeps into the ground (back again to the ground). And also plants take nutrients from the soil, and also return them back in the form of leaves, and rotting and decaying plant residues.

2. Rice plants carry out the process of photosynthesis, in addition to needing sunlight, rice plants also need carbon dioxide to breathe, water for transportation activities, and soil as nutrients.

3. Earthworms that need the rest of the Fragment/crushed material from the pdi plant as food and make holes in the ground as a place to live. Later, if the earthworm dies, it will decompose into organic matter/nutrients such as carbon, oxygen, etc. For the needs of rice plants and their survival.

Examples of biotic and abiotic natural phenomena

Biotic Natural

Symptoms Biotic natural phenomena are matters relating to living things, for example: butterfly metamorphosis, photosynthesis, pollination, growth and development of living things, and others. Biotic natural phenomena are characteristics of living things because biotic natural phenomena can only be carried out by living things. Examples of the nature of biotic natural phenomena include:

1. Grow and develop
All living things will grow and develop until they become adults.

2. Motion
All living things, humans, animals and plants exhibit the ability to move.

3. Breathing
Breathing is the activity of taking oxygen from the air and releasing carbon dioxide which is the main identity of living things.

4. Sensitive to stimuli
Living things respond to external stimuli. Ex: we will sweat when it is hot.

5. Needs food
The need for food is one of the characteristics of living things because living things need it as a source of energy.

Abiotic Natural

Symptoms Abiotic natural phenomena are things related to physical and chemical properties outside living things, for example rain, weathering, erosion, explosions, landslides and so on. Examples of the nature of abiotic natural phenomena include:

1. Form
All abiotic objects can be distinguished in form, namely solid, liquid, and gas.

2. Shapes
All abiotic objects have shapes that we can use to identify them.

3. Color
In addition to shape, color can also be a symptom of abiotic nature, so that it can be distinguished from others.

4. Size The
size of abiotic objects can be in the form of length, weight, volume, temperature, and so on.

5. Odor
Symptoms of abiotic nature can be characterized based on the smell, for example, sulfur has a different smell from dirty water.

6. Taste
Some abiotic objects can be identified based on their taste, namely sweet, sour or neutral.

7. Texture
Abiotic objects can also be recognized from their texture, namely smooth or rough surface.

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