Arterial Thrombosis Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Arterial Thrombosis Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention


Arterial thrombosis is a condition in which there is a blood clot in an artery. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body and to the heart muscle.

Arterial thrombosis is one of the factors that cause heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease, such as thrombosis of the leg arteries.

Arterial Thrombosis Symptoms

Arterial thrombosis generally does not show clear signs and symptoms until an artery becomes blocked and blood flow to several parts of the body is disrupted.

Depending on the location of the blockage, patients may experience:

  • Heart attack, which is characterized by pain or discomfort in the chest that radiates to other areas of the upper body, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness.
  • Stroke, which is characterized by confusion, numbness or weakness on one side of the body, impaired vision, and loss of balance.
  • Pulmonary embolism, which is characterized by chest pain, coughing up blood, sudden shortness of breath, and a rapid pulse.

Arterial Thrombosis Reason

Arterial thrombosis generally occurs in individuals who have atherosclerosis, or plaque buildup, in the arteries. Atherosclerosis causes the buildup of atheromatous deposits, or fatty plaques, on the walls of these blood vessels.

Atherosclerosis generally occurs in areas where blood flow is turbulent. This process can accelerate if the body is exposed to severe risk factors. It can also occur more frequently as a person gets older and in people with a family history of the disease.

Some of the risk factors for arterial thrombosis are:

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased cholesterol levels
  • Diabetes
  • old age
  • Family history
  • Poor diet
  • Experiencing excess weight
  • Lack of physical activity


The diagnosis of arterial thrombosis can be determined based on the results of medical interviews, physical examinations, and certain supporting examinations. Investigations that can be carried out include electrocardiography (EKG), echocardiography, laboratory tests, and several types of imaging tests.

Arterial Thrombosis Treatment

There are various treatments available for heart disease due to atheroma, which include the use of antithrombotic drugs, cardiac stenting, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

If a person has had a heart attack, the person may be advised to get thrombolytic treatment to break up the blood clot. This medication can be given by injection through a vein which then destroys the clot in the coronary artery, opens the coronary artery, and supports blood flow through the coronary artery.

Cardiac stenting is a procedure that involves widening a narrowed blood vessel with a balloon and then placing a stent, a tube made of stainless steel mesh, into it to prevent further narrowing of the artery.

Coronary artery bypass grafting is a procedure involving heart surgery, in which veins from the legs or other arteries in the chest are used to bypass narrowed areas of the coronary arteries.


Prevention of arterial thrombosis is one thing that is important to emphasize. There are two main areas: primary prevention, which is concerned with preventing disease progression, and secondary prevention, which is concerned with preventing recurrence of the disease.

Someone who is at risk may also be advised to use compression stockings to compress the veins in the legs to stimulate blood flow. It is also important to ensure that the stockings are adequate.

There are two main ways to prevent arterial thrombosis, namely lifestyle changes and medication. Someone who has had a heart attack or stroke before will be advised to make lifestyle changes.

Some things that can be done to reduce the risk of arterial thrombosis are:

  • Stop smoking
  • Implement a healthy diet
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain a stable weight
  • Limit alcohol intake

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