Acanthosis Nigricans Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Acanthosis Nigricans Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Acanthosis Nigricans Definition

Acanthosis nigricans is a skin disorder characterized by the presence of parts of the skin that look thicker and darker than the surrounding skin. Sometimes the skin condition is considered to be seen as climbing so that some sufferers try to rub their skin. But the action did not cause acanthosis nigricans to disappear.

Acanthosis nigricans was first recognized in 1889 in Germany by Unna and Pollitzer. Various studies have been conducted and found that this skin disorder is related to insulin resistance which underlies the occurrence of diabetes mellitus.

Acanthosis Nigricans Reason

The exact cause of acanthosis nigricans is not known, but this skin disorder is often found in conditions:

1. Obesity
2. Prediabetes and diabetes
3. Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS)
4. Side effects of drugs such as steroids, nicotinic acid, hormonal contraceptives
5. Gastrointestinal cancer

Acanthosis Nigricans Diagnosis

Acanthosis nigricans is generally associated with insulin disorders. Therefore, people who have acanthosis nigricans should undergo an examination to determine insulin and blood sugar levels. The tests included fasting blood sugar, post-meal blood sugar, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and c-peptide in the blood.

When acanthosis nigricans occurs in people aged 50 years and over, the possibility of gastrointestinal cancer needs to be considered. Therefore, doctors will generally recommend blood tests, endoscopy, CT – scan, or MRI to confirm the presence or absence of cancer.

Acanthosis Nigricans Symptom

The main sign of acanthosis nigricans is the presence of areas of blackened and thickened skin. These skin disorders generally do not cause itching, pain, or other complaints.

The skin parts that are most often affected are the nape of the neck, armpits, and groin. In a minority of cases, acanthosis nigricans can appear on the nipples, oral cavity, and eyes.

About 30 percent of cases of acanthosis nigricans are part of cancer, especially gastric cancer. Stomach cancer is characterized by drastic weight loss, enlarged stomach, vomiting, bowel obstruction.

Meanwhile, in another 70 percent of cases, acanthosis nigricans is associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Prediabetes does not have any symptoms, as well as some cases of diabetes are asymptomatic. However, diabetes can also show symptoms such as more frequent urination (to wake up often at night to urinate), easy thirst, and easy hunger.

Acanthosis Nigricans Treatment

The goal of treatment for acanthosis nigricans is to treat the disease that causes the skin disorder.

Because acanthosis nigricans is generally associated with insulin disorders and the presence of diabetes, it is important to adopt a healthy lifestyle. For example, by doing regular physical activity (at least four times a week with a minimum of 30 minutes of exercise) and adjusting your diet – such as consuming foods that are high in fiber and low in fat.

If a person with acanthosis nigricans also has diabetes, it is necessary to take diabetes medication as recommended and monitor by a doctor. If acanthosis nigricans occurs due to side effects of drugs such as steroids, nicotinic acid, and hormonal contraceptives, then the use of these drugs should be discontinued.

Meanwhile, the treatment for acanthosis nigricans itself is for cosmetic purposes only. To fade skin disorders that occur, some medications that are applied to the skin, such as retinoic acid, hydroquinone, fluocinolone, and salicylic acid, can be given. However, the use of this drug can only be done with a prescription and a doctor’s advice.

If acanthosis nigricans is associated with the presence of cancer, it is not uncommon for surgery to be performed.

Acanthosis Nigricans Prevention

To prevent acanthosis nigricans, some things you can do are:

1. Keep your weight in the ideal range
2. Eat high-fiber and low-fat foods
3. Regular exercise
4. Avoid exposure to cigarette smoke and stress

Acanthosis Nigricans – Risks, Pathogenesis, and Treatments According to JJ Medicine

Leave a Comment