Ventricular Tachycardia Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Ventricular Tachycardia Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention


Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a type of heart rhythm disorder characterized by the ventricles (chambers of the heart) beating too fast. Generally more than 100 times per minute.

The heart consists of two atria (porches) and two ventricles (chambers). Under normal circumstances, the flow of electricity that causes the heart to beat starts from the atria and continues into the ventricles. Therefore, in a healthy state, the atria and ventricles of the heart contract to circulate blood effectively throughout the body.

If this normal process is disrupted, the flow of electricity to the heart will experience chaos. As a result, the atria and ventricles do not contract in harmony. The ventricles then beat too fast and VT occurs.

In this condition, blood cannot be delivered properly throughout the body from the heart. VT is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac arrest. This condition is more common in elderly people and is more susceptible to being experienced by men.

Ventricular Tachycardia Symptoms

Ventricular tachycardia (VT) causes blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body to be disrupted. This is where various symptoms arise. Disruption of blood flow to the brain can cause complaints of sensations such as floating, palpitations, and decreased consciousness.

Impaired blood flow to the heart causes complaints of chest pain, especially on the left side, and can be accompanied by severe shortness of breath. Sometimes, these symptoms are not visible at all. This is dangerous because suddenly VT sufferers can die suddenly due to cardiac arrest.

Ventricular Tachycardia Reason

Ventricular tachycardia (VT) can be caused by many things. The most common cause is coronary heart disease. Apart from that, VT can also be caused by the following:

  • Disorders of the heart

    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Congenital defects of the heart, such as tetralogy of Fallot
    • The presence of postoperative scar tissue in the heart area
    • Myocarditis
    • Side effects of certain drugs that cause disturbances in the electrical flow of the heart
    • Canal abnormalities in the heart such as Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome
  • The disturbance is not in the heart

    • Electrolyte disturbances (potassium, calcium, or magnesium that is too low)
    • Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis

If VT occurs in those under 35 years of age, then generally the most common causes are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and anatomic abnormalities of the coronary arteries.


To determine the diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia (VT), at the initial examination, the doctor will perform a physical examination by listening to heart sounds through a stethoscope, measuring pulse and measuring blood pressure. After that, to confirm the presence of VT and its causes, several tests that are generally carried out are:

  • Electrocardiography (EKG) examination, which is an examination to assess and record the electrical activity in the heart. From this examination, it is usually known whether there is VT or not.
  • Transesophageal echocardiography examination, which is an examination using a tool such as an ultrasound (USG) that is inserted into the esophagus to see the structure of the liver. This is necessary to find out the cause of VT in sufferers.
  • A cardiac MRI can also be performed to find out the details of the anatomical structure of the heart to find out the cause of VT.

Ventricular Tachycardia Treatment

The goal of ventricular tachycardia (VT) treatment is to control the heart rhythm and return the heart rhythm to normal. For that, treatment generally includes:

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which is the action of pumping the heart by the medical team to maintain blood circulation as long as the heart’s condition is not stable.
  • Defibrillation, which is the action of using an electric shock device ( DC shock ) to reset the heart’s electrical rhythm.
  • Cardioversion, which is the act of synchronizing the messy electrical currents of the heart so that they can return to normal using an electric shock device ( DC shock ).
  • Administration of antiarrhythmic drugs to keep the heart’s electrical currents under control.

If VT has been resolved, then the patient needs to receive long-term treatment to prevent VT from recurring. Generally, long-term treatment is carried out by using antiarrhythmic drugs.

However, not all VT sufferers can take long-term medication because of the risk of side effects. In conditions like this, it is necessary to consider installing an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the chest area to synchronize the electrical flow of the heart if VT recurs at any time.


To prevent ventricular tachycardia (VT), heart health must be maintained by adopting a healthy lifestyle such as:

  • Increase consumption of vegetables and fruit, and limit fat
  • Maintain an ideal weight
  • Avoid exposure to cigars
  • Do aerobic exercise (such as jogging, cycling, and swimming) regularly at least five times a week

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