Understanding the Wound Healing Process

Everyone’s wound healing process is different. Minor wounds generally heal on their own with good wound care. However, in certain cases, wounds can be difficult to heal due to severe injuries or certain diseases.

Everyone must have experienced injuries, whether in the form of scratches, cuts, punctures, burns, or surgical stitches.

Understanding the Wound Healing Process

Wounds usually cause pain due to damage to body tissue. However, the severity or severity of the pain and the length of the healing process depending on the location, type of wound, and severity.

What is the Wound Healing Process?

When you are injured, there are several stages in the wound healing process, including:

Level of hemostasis (blood clotting)

The first stage in the wound healing process is the blood clotting stage. Blood will usually come out when the skin is cut, scratched, or punctured.

A few seconds or minutes after the wound, the blood will clot to close and heal the wound and prevent the body from losing too much blood. This blood clot will then turn into a scab as it dries.

Inflammatory stage (inflammation)

After the bleeding stops, the blood vessels will dilate to allow fresh blood to flow to the injured area of ​​the body. Fresh blood is needed to help the wound healing process. This is the reason why sores can feel warm, swollen, and red for some time.

In the inflammatory stage, white blood cells will destroy germs in the wound area. This is the body’s natural mechanism for preventing infection. White blood cells also produce chemical compounds that can repair damaged body tissues. Next, new skin cells will grow and cover the wound area.

Proliferative stage (formation of new tissue)

This stage is the stage of scar tissue formation after the wound. At this stage, collagen begins to grow in the wound. Collagen is a protein fiber that provides strength and elasticity to the skin.

The presence of collagen encourages the wound edges to shrink and close. Next, tiny blood vessels or capillaries form in the wound to supply blood to the newly formed skin.

Tissue maturation or strengthening stage

The tissue maturation process can take months or even years. This is the reason why the older the scar, the more it will fade.

Once the damaged tissue is completely healed, the skin will be as strong as it was before the injury.

However, the appearance of scars may be different from normal skin. This is because the skin is composed of two proteins, namely collagen which gives skin strength and elastin which gives skin elasticity.

In scars, the skin cannot produce new elastin, so the scar is made entirely of collagen. The new skin that forms in this scar is strong, but less flexible than the surrounding skin.

Various Conditions That Make Wounds Difficult to Heal

There are several conditions that make wounds difficult to heal, including:

1. Infection

Infection can cause the wound to widen or enlarge, so it takes longer to heal. Infection can occur if the wound is not treated properly.

2. Blood flow is not smooth

Blood contains oxygen and nutrients needed for the wound healing process. Therefore, blood flow that is not smooth can inhibit the wound healing process. Disturbances in blood flow can be caused by blockages or varicose veins.

3. Age

The wound healing process in the elderly generally lasts longer. This can be caused by several factors, such as poor blood flow, reduced collagen due to aging, or chronic diseases, such as diabetes.

4. Stress

Stress can cause loss of appetite and sleep deprivation. In fact, some people consume alcoholic beverages in excess as a way to relieve stress. These conditions can interfere with the wound healing process.

5. Drug side effects

The wound healing process can be disrupted due to the consumption of certain drugs, such as corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and chemotherapy drugs. However, to reduce pain from wounds, the use of paracetamol in the short term is still safe for the wound healing process.

6. Lack of nutrition

A lack of nutrients such as vitamins A and C, protein, zinc, and iron, can hinder the wound healing process. Therefore, you are advised to meet your nutritional intake by eating balanced nutritious foods to support wound recovery.

7. Smoking

Various studies show that the wound healing process in active smokers lasts longer and is not perfect than in people who do not smoke. This is thought to be related to the effects of smoking which can interfere with blood flow and white blood cell performance, as well as high levels of toxins in the blood.

8. Suffering from certain diseases

Certain diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure (hypertension), and blood vessel disorders, can also slow down the wound healing process. This is because the disease can interfere with the smooth flow of blood which plays an important role in the wound healing process.

The time it takes for the wound to completely heal depends on the condition of the wound. The larger and in the condition of the wound, the longer the wound healing process. To support the wound healing process, you also need to take good care of the wound, get plenty of rest, and eat nutritious foods, such as foods that contain amino acids.

There is research that says that the use of natural ingredients, such as jade wood, honey, candlenut oil, aloe vera, gotu kola leaves, or argan oil can help support the wound healing process. However, this still needs to be investigated further.

If you experience serious injuries or bleeding that doesn’t stop, you are advised to immediately go to the nearest doctor or hospital so that appropriate treatment can be carried out.

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