Types Of Vaccines Based On Immunology

There are many types of vaccines available today to protect against a host of dangerous diseases.

Vaccination is a very simple process in which to prevent diseases caused by organisms, the body’s immune system is stimulated by injecting live bacteria or viruses or their parts into the body. Diseases can leave a lifelong impact on their health. These infectious diseases spread easily in children because their immune system is weak and underdeveloped. Different types of vaccinations are available for newborns and older children. Which varies depending on the disease prevalent in the country.

Vaccination (Vaccine Immunology)

A combination of proteins present in disease-causing bacteria or viruses stimulates the release of antibodies in our blood. Antibodies are protective protein molecules of the body’s immune system that fight bacterial or viral antigens. Antibodies develop memory against the antigen and attack it the next time the body is infected, thus preventing the disease.

Antigen is found in a vaccine, it is very thin and completely safe. It triggers the process inside the body and releases antibodies to fight antigens that provide protection against various diseases.

What kind of tea?

Vaccines are based on the antigens used in vaccines. Monovalent and polyvalent vaccines contain a single vaccine (measles vaccine) and two or more strains of antigen (oral polio vaccine). Combination vaccines contain two or more monovalent or polyvalent strains of antigen in one injection that protect against more than one disease, such as the DPT vaccine (diphtheria, whooping cough, or pertussis and tetanus).

Age, group, immune response, method of vaccine preparation, temperature, and its transmission. These are factored when choosing the type of vaccine to be used against the disease.

The World Health Organization and the Indian Academy of Pediatrics recommend all vaccinations till the age of 10 years to protect children from various diseases in India.

1. Live-film vaccines contain live and weakened bacteria or viruses. The bacterial or viral antigens in the vaccine cause a mild infection in the body that is similar to the infection naturally caused by these organisms. A single dose of the vaccine produces a strong immune response and provides varying periods of protection against diseases such as:

  • Oral polio vaccine: At birth, 6 months, 9 months, and 4 and 6 years.
  • BCG: at birth
  • Measles: at 9 months
  • MM R (Mumps, Measles, and Rubella): At 15 months and a booster dose
  • Chickenpox (Varicella Vaccine): At 1 year and a booster dose

2. Inactivated vaccines contain killed bacteria or viruses. This vaccine does not provide long-term protection and several booster doses are required to build immunity against the disease.

  • Hepatitis A: Two doses between 1 and 2 years.
  • Injectable polio vaccine: 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 18 weeks, and a booster dose at 18 months

3. Subunit vaccines involve the use of different parts of killed bacteria or viruses. The subunit elicits an immune response that provides protection. Different parts of the organism are used to produce subunit vaccines.

  • Protein-based subunit vaccine: The protein molecule of the antigen is isolated and purified. This purified protein of antigen stimulates the body’s immune system.
  • Hepatitis B: at birth, 1 month, and 6 months
  • Polysaccharide subunit vaccines are composed of the protective capsule of the organism causing the disease, such as the meningococcal vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine.
  • Conjugate subunit vaccines are manufactured using high-tech technology and contain a carrier protein that binds the bacterial polysaccharide and induces an immune response that is similar to Haemophilus influenzae (HiB vaccine), meningococcal vaccine, pneumococcus vaccine, and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV vaccine). Provides protection from diseases like HPV.
  • DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus): 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks, 2 booster doses at 18 months and 6 years
  • HiB: Booster dose at 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks, and 1 year to 3 years
  • Pneumococcal vaccine: Booster doses at 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks, and 1 year. HPV: in 10 years

Toxoid vaccines are made from toxins produced by disease-causing organisms. A toxoid vaccine is an adjuvanted vaccine, which means the vaccine contains chemicals containing aluminum or calcium that enhance the immune response.

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