Thyrotoxicosis Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Thyrotoxicosis Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention


Thyrotoxicosis is a condition in which the body has too much thyroid hormone. This condition makes the body suppress the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) because the body thinks that thyroid hormone levels are excessive in the blood.

Thyrotoxicosis Symptom

Symptoms that a person with thyrotoxicosis may experience include:

  • Nervous
  • Easy to get angry
  • Overly tired
  • Significant weight loss
  • Hard to sleep
  • Hair loss
  • Thin skin
  • Can not stand when in a hot environment
  • Easy to sweat
  • Muscle ache
  • Weakness in the upper arms and thighs
  • Menstruation that lasts a short time
  • The eyes protrude (exophthalmos) and are dry

Thyrotoxicosis Reason

Generally, thyrotoxicosis is caused by hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.

This hyperthyroidism is caused by Grave’s disease. This disease is classified as an autoimmune disease, in which for reasons that are not clear, the body attacks the cells of the hormone glands. As a result, hormone production becomes excessive. Grave’s disease is the background for at least 70-80 percent of cases of hyperthyroidism and it runs in families.

Apart from Grave’s, thyrotoxicosis can also occur due to inflammation of the thyroid gland or thyroiditis. This condition is caused by taking large amounts of thyroid medication.


The diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis is established on the basis of medical interviews, physical examinations and supporting examinations. In medical interviews, symptoms of anxiety or irritability are generally found. On physical examination, an enlarged thyroid gland and protruding eyes (exophthalmos) can be found.

Several investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, such as:

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test
  • Free thyroxine (FT 4 )
  • Total triiodothyronine (T 3 )

To evaluate the levels of auto-antibodies in the body, several tests are also needed, such as:

  • Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies
  • Thyroid-stimulating antibodies

Thyrotoxicosis Treatment

Thyrotoxicosis treatment can be done by various methods:

  • Drinking medicine

Oral medications given to help suppress blood thyroid levels are methimazole (Tapazole) and propylthiouracil (PTU). This drug is anti-thyroid which inhibits the direct action of the hormone.

Other drugs that can also be an option are beta-adrenergic blockers such as propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. This drug works to relieve symptoms but does not reduce thyroid hormone levels.

  • Radioactive iodine

This treatment is done by giving pills containing radioactive iodine. Within a few weeks after consumption, the radioactivity in it will be able to destroy thyroid cells so that thyroid levels will decrease in the blood.

To prevent the body from deficient in thyroid hormone as a result of this therapy, additional thyroid supplements may also be needed while closely monitoring thyroid hormone levels in the blood.

  • Operation

Another treatment that can be done is surgery. Thyroid gland surgery can be done by removing part or all of the gland, depending on how extensive the overworked cells are.


If not handled properly, thyrotoxicosis can lead to heart rhythm disturbances and bone loss or osteoporosis.


Efforts to prevent thyrotoxicosis are carried out by carrying out periodic controls on Grave’s patients and checking blood thyroid hormone levels regularly in patients who take thyroid medication in the long term.

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