Lower Spine Pain: Here Are The Causes And How To Treat It

Lower spine pain can greatly interfere with comfort and activity. Even in certain cases, these complaints can also appear along with other problems, such as weakness in the legs or feet. Therefore, it is important to know the cause and how to deal with it.

Pain in the lower spine often causes complaints of low back pain. This pain usually arises due to damage or disruption to the structure of connective tissue or ligaments, muscles, nerves, bones and joints, and the spinal cord.

Spinal pain can be experienced by anyone, from children to the elderly. However, some research suggests that these complaints most often occur in adults around 30–50 years of age.

Understanding the Causes of Lower Spine Pain

There are several factors that can increase a person’s risk of experiencing lower spine pain, such as being overweight, pregnancy, frequent smoking, heavy stress, as well as side effects of medications, such as corticosteroids.

In addition to the appearance of pain in the spine or around the lower back, lower spine pain can also appear along with other complaints, such as numbness, stiffness in the lower back, and tingling or numbness that spreads to one leg.

Pain from the lower spine can also sometimes spread to the thighs, buttocks, or legs.

There are several things that can cause lower spine pain, including:

1. K muscle tension

Muscle strain or sprain usually occurs when you lift a heavy object in the wrong position or way, or when you perform a heavy movement suddenly.

In addition, muscle tension can also occur due to incorrect body position, such as often bending or bending the neck and sitting for too long.

2. Disorders of the structure of the spine

Lower spine pain can also be caused by abnormalities or damage to the structure of spinal tissue, such as arthritis or arthritis, osteoporosis, spinal injuries, and deformities or shifts of the spine ( scoliosis ).

3. Infections of the spine

Pain in the lower spine can also sometimes be caused by bacterial infections, such as Staphylococcus and Escherichia Coli. These bacteria can cause epidural abscesses and spondylitis that can damage the tissue structure of the lower spine.

In addition, pain in the lower spine can also be caused by tuberculosis (TB) in the spine.

4. Cancer and tumors of the spine

The growth of tumors and cancer cells in the spine can cause damage to nerve tissue, making the spine feel sore.

In addition, tumors or cancer of the spine can also cause weakness, difficulty urinating or defecation, to paralysis of the limbs or feet.

5. Spinal stenosis

This is a condition when the space or cavity of the spine is narrowed so that it urges or pinches the spinal nerves and causes pain. This condition can be caused by injury, scoliosis, genetic disorders, or the aging process in the spine.

6. Nerves are pinched

The disease is closely related to spinal stenosis. When the narrowing of the spine is severe enough, over time this condition can lead to pinched nerves (HNP). In addition to stenosis, pinched nerves can also occur due to spinal cord injury.

As a result, there will be pain in the back and lower spine. This pain can spread to the legs, buttocks, or thighs. In some cases, pinched nerves can also cause tingling or numbness, weakness of the lower limbs, or even paralysis.

7. Equine cauda syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome can also be one of the causes of pain in the spine or lower back. The pain that arises as a result of this disease can be very severe and sometimes accompanied by tingling or numbness in both legs.

8. Spondylolisthesis

This condition can occur when the spine shifts from its normal position, making it difficult for you to stand and walk for a long time. Spondylolisthesis can be caused by several factors, such as genetic factors and injury.

Lower spine pain can be caused by many things. Therefore, when you feel this complaint, especially if the pain that appears has been prolonged or getting worse, you should see a doctor.

To determine the cause of the lower spine pain you are experiencing, your doctor may perform a physical examination and various supporting tests, such as X -rays, CT scans, MRIs, blood tests, and electromyography (EMG).

How to Overcome Spinal Pain

Treatment of lower spine pain will be tailored to the cause. The following treatments are usually recommended by doctors:

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To reduce the pain that appears, the doctor will prescribe a painkiller, such as paracetamol, celecoxib, diclofenac, or ketorolac. Meanwhile, to treat nerve disorders and severe pain, antidepressants or opioid antipsychotics may be given.

If the back pain is caused by an infection, such as spinal TB, the doctor may prescribe antituberculosis medications.


To help relieve symptoms of pain, tingling, numbness, or even weakness in the limbs or feet, your doctor may also recommend that you undergo physiotherapy, such as electrical therapy.

With this therapy, the physiotherapist will provide treatment to relax stiff and tense muscles, improve the structure of the lower spinal tissue, and help you perform certain physical exercises or movements to reduce pain in the lower spine.


Spinal surgery is the last resort, if other treatment measures do not succeed in resolving the lower spinal pain that appears, or if the spinal damage is severe and needs to be repaired.

The type and technique of surgery performed can vary, depending on the cause of the back pain you are feeling. In general, this procedure is quite safe to perform.

However, just like other surgical procedures, in some cases, spinal surgery is also at risk of causing side effects or complications, such as spinal nerve damage, numbness, or even paralysis.

Lower spine pain can generally be prevented and relieved by regular exercise, maintaining an ideal weight, and getting used to maintain a good or sturdy posture.

However, if you have severe or prolonged lower back pain, especially if you have other complaints, such as numbness, weakness in the limbs, or paralysis, you should see a doctor immediately for treatment.

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