How to Purify Water

Know-How to Purify Water

Access to clean water is very important for human, animal and plant health. Unfortunately, water can be contaminated with pathogens, minerals, and impurities that cause disease and health problems. There are many ways that can be used to purify water and remove sediment and contaminants, whether you’re out in the wild far from clean water sources or don’t have a safe water source at home.

1. Removing Large Particles

1. Strain the water:

For water that has been contaminated with large particles such as gravel, insects, plant debris, or mud, you can filter the contaminants. Prepare a tight-fitting mesh filter lined with muslin, cheesecloth, a clean dishcloth, or even a clean cotton T-shirt. Place the strainer over the bowl and then pour the water through it. Thus, large particles in the water will be retained.
Keep in mind that filtering water this way will only remove large particles, but not pathogens, heavy metals, or other contaminants.

2. Make your own water filter:

Make your own water filter

You can also make your own water filter to remove large deposits from the water. You will need some equipment, but you can also use alternatives if necessary, which include:
Use a birch trunk shaped into a cone instead of bottles and caps.
Use a T-shirt or towel instead of a coffee filter.
Use nuts, roots, or grasses in place of the filter material.

3. Take advantage of the sediment in the water:

If you don’t have any equipment to filter the water, you can remove large particles from the water by allowing them to settle. Put the water in a bowl or jar, then let it sit for 1 or 2 hours. As long as it is left, the heavy particles in the water will settle to the bottom of the container, while the light particles will float on the surface of the water.

To remove light particles, you just need to scoop them out with a spoon from the surface of the water.
To remove heavy deposits, slowly pour the water into a clean bowl or jar. However, stop pouring the water before it reaches the bottom of the bowl. That way, heavy deposits will be left in the previous container.

2. Using Chemicals

1. Use purifying tablets and water disinfectant:

Use purifying tablets and water disinfectant


Water purifying tablets are made of chlorine dioxide or iodine and can kill bacteria and viruses in the water. To use this tablet, pour water into a bottle or jar and then add enough water purifying tablet. One water purifying tablet can usually purify 1 liter of water. The time it takes for the tablets to take effect is about 30 minutes to 4 hours.

Water purifying tablets cannot cope with protozoal or chemical contamination.
Iodine tablets are generally not suitable for pregnant women and those who are allergic to shellfish.

2. Use a small amount of bleach to clean the water:

Bleach can also be used to kill viruses and bacteria in water. However, be sure to only use small amounts of bleach to avoid poisoning. In order to work effectively, the bleach must also not have expired. To purify water with this chemical:

-Pour water into a bottle or teapot
-Pour 4 drops (1/16 teaspoon) of bleach per 1 liter of water
-Shake or stir the water
-Leave it for 30 minutes

3. Use iodine:

Liquid iodine can also be used to destroy pathogens in water. It’s just that a lot of people don’t like the taste. To purify water with iodine, simply hold water and add 2% iodine solution into it. Give 4 drops of bleach per 1 liter of water, and leave for 30 minutes.

3. Filtering Contaminants in Water

1. Use a commercial water filter:

Commercial water filters are the easiest and most effective to filter out deposits, pathogens, metals, and other water contaminants. These filters contain special ingredients such as charcoal, carbon, ceramic, sand, as well as fabrics that are specially designed to filter out harmful contaminants. There are many types of water filters that you can use, including:

Use a commercial water filter

-Water filter for the whole house that can filter the entire flow of water that enters the house.
-A faucet filter that can be installed on a specific faucet and filters the water that passes through it.
-Filters that you can fill manually with water.
-Water bottles and straws equipped with water filters.
-Water purifier in the form of a UV light flashlight that can kill bacteria, viruses, and other contaminants from small volumes of water.

2. Filter out pathogens from the water with a pine tree:

Filter out pathogens from the water with a pine tree

Certain plants are quite effective at removing pathogens from the water, and pine trees are one of the best choices. To get rid of viruses and bacteria from the water, take a small pine tree. Peel the bark and then put the open pine trunk into the bucket. Slowly pour the water through the pine trunk until it enters the bucket.

-When in contact with water, the pine bark sap will catch and hold the contaminants

3. Overcome heavy metals with cilantro:

Just as pine trees are effective at removing pathogens in water, coriander leaves are also very effective at removing heavy metals from water. Pour some water into a teapot and put a handful of coriander leaves in it. Stir in the water and let the coriander leaves soak in it for at least an hour. Remove and discard the cilantro before you drink the water.

-Coriander leaves are known to be effective in removing lead and nickel content from the water. However, it has not been tested for other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury.

4. Strain the water through a clay jug to remove bacteria:

Clay and ceramics are hollow materials that allow water to flow through them. However, bacteria, protozoa, and sediment will be trapped in it. Because they can trap contaminants like these, clay jugs can be used to purify water, especially those contaminated with E. coli bacteria. To purify water with a clay jug:

-Place the bottom of the jug into a jar or bucket of the same size.
-Fill the jug with water
-Let the jug soak until the water seeps out and into the jar below.

4. Killing Pathogens with Heat or Sunlight

1. Boil water:

Boiling is a powerful way to kill bacteria, viruses, and parasites from water. Fill a pot with water and then heat it over medium-high heat or over a campfire. Bring the water to a boil and let it simmer completely for about 10 minutes. Let the water cool before drinking.

Boil water

-Water purification usually takes 3-5 minutes, but at higher elevations, you’ll need to boil the water longer.
-Boiling alone cannot remove heavy metal content or chemical contamination from the water. However, boiling water with the flesh of the cactus plant can get rid of other pollutants, such as arsenic.

2. Use solar distillation:

Distillation is an effective way to remove many contaminants from water, such as heavy metals, pathogens, salts, and even radiation. You can build this solar distillation apparatus to collect and distill groundwater. All you need is a jar to hold the water, a shovel, and a plastic sheet.

-Solar distillation is best suited for moist, water-rich soils.
-To use this tool, you don’t have to change the parts, just insert a straw or hose into the container.

3. Use the SODIS method:

SODIS is short for solar water disinfection, and if done correctly, it can be very effective at killing waterborne pathogens. Fill water into a clean and smooth plastic bottle. Put the cap on and place the bottle in a place exposed to direct sunlight for 6 hours to kill parasites, bacteria and viruses.

-This method is effective because the plastic can trap heat from sunlight in the bottle while UVA rays pasteurize the water.

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