Head Injury Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Head Injury Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention


Severe head trauma is a condition in which the brain is severely damaged after an injury to the head. Most cases of severe head trauma are related to traffic accidents, sports injuries, or abuse.

Damage to the brain usually occurs due to a very strong impact or beat. The impact or jolt can hit the head directly or on the body. In addition, damage can also occur due to objects that penetrate the brain, for example during an accident.

This condition can cause complications and even death. Therefore, in general cases of severe head trauma require immediate treatment and long-term care.

Head Injury Symptoms

The main symptom of severe head trauma is loss of consciousness. This disturbance of consciousness can be in the form of fainting, unconsciousness, tending to be drowsy, or experiencing disorientation of people, places, and time. Often, sometimes after experiencing a loss of consciousness, the person with severe head trauma regains consciousness for a few minutes, then loses consciousness again.

In addition, there are other symptoms that generally occur in severe head trauma, including:

• Twitching seizures or full body stiffness
• Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
• Decreased hearing
• Blurred or double vision
• Spraying vomiting
• Areas or clear fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) coming out of the nose or ears
• Loss of memory (amnesia)
• Bruises around the eyes or behind the ears

Head Injury Reason

The most common cause of severe head trauma is injury from traffic accidents, abuse, or sports accidents. Conditions that most often trigger and lead to severe head trauma include:

• A high-speed car-to-car crash
• The driver or passenger in the car has recently consumed alcohol
• Has had previous brain surgery
• Is taking blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin


As an initial examination in cases of severe head trauma, the doctor will assess the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS value in normal humans is 15, while the GCS value at the lowest level of consciousness is 3.

A person is considered to have experienced severe head trauma if they have a GCS score of 8 or lower. GCS examination is carried out periodically to see any improvement or worsening of the patient’s level of consciousness.

In addition, patients who are suspected of having experienced severe head trauma must also undergo a CT scan. The purpose of a CT scan is to find out the possibility of brain bleeding and to ensure that there are no broken skull bones.

Head Injury Treatment

Patients who experience severe head trauma must be hospitalized. Things that will be done to be able to restore the patient’s condition, including:

• Periodically check the patient’s consciousness
• If the level of consciousness is very low, breathing apparatus or head surgery may be needed
• Perform X-ray and ultrasound examinations to find out if there are other injured body parts

If not treated quickly and appropriately, severe head trauma can cause permanent disability. For example, the patient’s consciousness cannot be recovered as before, limb weakness, or difficulty speaking normally. Conditions of severe head trauma can also cause bacteria, viruses, or parasites to enter the brain and cause infection.


To reduce the risk of head injury, especially severe head trauma, protect your head when doing various activities that require head safety. For example, when traveling with certain means of transportation, follow the applicable security procedures.
Also, keep children away from windows or balconies, so they don’t fall from a height. Also use a helmet for activities that have a high risk of head injury, for example when cycling, motorbikes, working on construction projects, and the like.

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