Democratic Culture – Definition, Kinds, Principles, Elements, Implementation, Examples

Democratic culture is a mindset and attitude of citizens based on the values ​​of independence, equality and brotherhood between humans with cooperation, mutual trust, tolerance, and compromise. The etymological understanding of democratic culture is human attitudes and activities that reflect democratic values. such as respect, togetherness, freedom, and rules. A democratic culture is a form of application or application of values ​​in democratic principles.

Democratic culture consists of two words, culture and democracy. Culture is the result of the ability of the human mind in the environment of life. While democracy is a state in which the government system is in the hands of the people and the highest power is in the hands of the people.

Various Cultures of Democracy

Various kinds of democratic culture can be viewed from various points of view as follows. Judging from the way of channeling the will of the people or the form of people’s participation, there are three kinds of democracy, namely as follows.

1. Direct Democracy

Direct democracy is a democratic system that involves all people directly in discussing or determining state affairs (political policy making). For example, a referendum (asking for the opinion of the whole people) on basic issues in the life of the state, the implementation of presidential and vice-presidential elections and people’s representatives sitting in parliament.

2. Indirect Democracy (Representative Democracy)

Representative democracy is a democratic system in channeling the aspirations of the people through their representatives in the DPR. In this case, the people are not directly involved in making political decisions, but are delegated or delegated their power to the people they choose through free, honest and fair elections.

3. Mixed Democracy

Mixed democracy is a democratic system that combines direct democracy and representative democracy. The people elect their representatives in the DPRD then the representatives are controlled by the people with a referendum system. That is an example of a mixed form of democracy.

In terms of ideology, there are two kinds of democracy as follows:

Constitutional Democracy

Constitutional democracy reflects a limited government power and does not interfere much and does not act arbitrarily against its citizens. The power of this government is limited by the constitution. Constitutional democracy is embraced by Western European countries, the United States of America, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore.

People’s Democracy (Proletarian Democracy)

People’s democracy or proletarian democracy is a democracy based on the teachings of communism and marxism developed by Karl Mark and Leninism. A prominent feature of this people’s democracy is that it does not recognize the human rights of its citizens

Principles of Democratic Culture

Democratic culture, in this case the principle of democratic culture, is an application of democratic principles in the life of the nation and state so that it becomes a democratic culture. The principles of democratic culture are as follows.

General Principles of Democratic Culture

1. The existence of a guarantee of human rights, is a basic right that is inherent from birth, is a gift from God Almighty so that it cannot be taken away by anyone, including the country.
2. Equality before the law, so that there is no discrimination and injustice for anyone who violates the law must receive sanctions in accordance with applicable law.
3. There is an acknowledgment of political rights, such as assembly, opposition, association and expression of opinion.
4. Supervision or control over the government, with democracy itself
5. The government is based on the constitution, so that there is no abuse of power by the government against its people.
6. There are suggestions or people’s criticisms regarding the government’s performance with the mass media or people’s representatives as a place to channel people’s aspirations.
7. Elections are free, honest and fair
8. There is popular sovereignty.

Elements of Democratic Culture

1. People’s involvement in making a political decision
2. The degree of equality of rights among citizens.
3. The degree of freedom and independence granted to or maintained and possessed by citizens.
4. Representative system, this system is carried out because direct democracy only functions effectively in a country with a small territory and a small population.
5. Election system and majority provisions, this electoral system is implemented to fill a state position. And it should be carried out honestly and fairly so that state institutional officials who have integrity and quality are elected,

Implementation of Democracy

1. Old Order Period

Parliamentary democracy/liberal (RIS and UUDS 1950), at this time Indonesia uses a parliamentary democracy system.

How the Old Order Period works

1. Legislative power is exercised by the DPR, political parties that control the majority of votes in the DPR form the cabinet.

2. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet / Council of Ministers under the leadership of the Prime Minister and is responsible to Parliament.

3. The president is only the head of state, the head of government is held by the prime minister.

4. Judicial power is exercised by an independent judiciary.

5. If the DPR or the parliament considers the minister’s performance to be poor, then the parliament submits a motion of no confidence, then the minister must resign.

6. If the cabinet disbands, the president appoints a cabinet formator to arrange a new cabinet.

7. If the DPR or parliament submits a motion of no confidence in the new cabinet, then the DPR or parliament is dissolved and a general election is held.

Negative things that happened during the implementation of the parliamentary system:

1. The average cabinet age or tenure is short, during the 1950-1959 period there have been seven cabinet changes.
2. Incompatibility of relations between within the armed forces. Some are leaning toward the Wilopo cabinet, some are leaning toward President Soekarno.
3. There was an open debate between Soekarno and Masyumi leader Isa Anshary about the replacement of a more Islamic state foundation whether it would harm people of other religions or not.
4. The campaign period became long (1953-1955), resulting in increased tension in the community.
5. The policies of some prime ministers tend to favor their parties.
6. The central government received challenges from the regions such as the Permesta and PRRI rebellions.

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