Definition of Morphological Adaptation and Type of Morphological Adaptation

What is Morphological Adaptation and Type of Morphological Adaptation

Morphological adaptation is the way living things adjust their body shape to their environment, with the aim of surviving. Or it can also be interpreted as a way of adjusting the body shape and organs of the organism to its environment. This type of adaptation is quite easy to observe because it occurs only on the outside of living things.

Types of Morphological Adaptations

1. Morphological adaptation in plants

Morphological adaptation in plants

a. Adaptation of plants that live in dry areas (xerophytes).

1. The leaves are thick, narrow, sometimes deformed into thorns, scales or even without leaves, so evaporation through the leaves is very little.
2. The entire surface of the body including the leaves is covered by a layer of cuticle or a layer of wax which serves to prevent evaporation of water that is too large.
3. The thick stems have a network of sponges to store water.
4. The roots are long so they have a wide reach.

b. Adaptation of plants living in moist areas (hygrophyte)

1. Has thin and wide leaves.
2. The leaf surface has many leaf mouths or stomata so that it can speed up the evaporation process. Examples of hygrophytic plants: taro plants.

c. Adaptation of plants that live in water (hydrophytes)

1. Aquatic plants that float on the water have intercellular cavities filled with air to facilitate floating in the water, broad leaves and inflated leaf stalks filled with air. Examples: water hyacinth, hyacinth.
2. Aquatic plants immersed in water, have strong and thick cell walls to reduce osmosis into the cells. Examples: Hydrilla, Vallisneria.
3. Plants whose bodies are partly above the water surface and their roots are embedded in the bottom of the water, have air cavities in the stems or petioles so that they do not sink in the water and the leaves emerge to the surface of the water. Example: lotus, kale.
4. Plants that live in tidal areas have thick and strong roots so they don’t collapse when hit by waves. Example: mangroves.

2. Morphological adaptation in animals:

A. Various kinds of bird beak shape according to the type of food.

1. The duck’s beak at the base has a comb-like shape, useful for filtering food from water and mud.
2. The sparrow’s beak is short, thick and pointed to break up grains.

B. Various types of bird claws/feet

1. His duck legs are webbed between his finger joints to swim and walk on muddy ground
2. Chicken feet are very good for scavenging food on the ground.
3. Birds have different foot shapes depending on where they live and the type of prey they eat.

C. Insect

To get their food, insects have their own way. One form of adaptation is the shape of the mouth that differs according to the type of food. Based on the type of food they eat, the mouths of insects are divided into four, namely sucking mouths, piercing mouths, licking mouths, and absorbent mouths.

1. Sucker mouth

The sucking mouth of insects is shaped like a proboscis that can be rolled up and stretched out. An example of an insect that has a sucking mouth is a butterfly. Butterflies use sucker mouths to suck honey from flowers.

2. Piercing and sucking mouth

The piercing and sucking mouths of insects have a sharp and long shape. An example of an insect that has a piercing and sucking mouth is a mosquito. Mosquitoes use their mouths to pierce human skin and then suck blood. So, in addition to the mouth that functions as an awl, it also functions as a sucker.

3. The mouth of the licker

The licking mouth of insects is characterized by the presence of a long tongue and is useful for licking food in the form of nectar from flowers, an example of an insect that has a licking mouth is a bee.

4. Absorbent mouth

The absorbent mouth of insects is characterized by the presence of a sponge-like absorbent device (cork). This tool is used to absorb food, especially in liquid form. An example of an insect that has an absorbing mouth is a fly.

D. Special teeth

The teeth of carnivorous or meat-eating animals are adapted into four large and pointed canines for catching prey, as well as molars with sharp cutting edges for tearing their prey.

Camels live in dry and arid desert areas. Therefore, his body shape is adapted to the desert environment. A form of adaptation to the camel is the presence of water storage in its body and has a hump as a store of fat. This is what causes camels to survive without drinking water for a long time.

Examples of Morphological Adaptations in Animals

Birds with a flesh-eating type of beak have a strong, sharp, curved beak at the end, for example in the beak of an eagle. birds with honey-sucking beak types have long and pointed beaks, for example in hummingbirds. And finally, fish-eating birds have the shape of a pocket-shaped beak, which belongs to this type, namely the beak of pelicans.

Examples of Morphological Adaptations in Humans

On the Leaves, the ears are flexible so that humans become safe while sleeping. The nostrils in humans face down so that the human nostrils do not easily enter rainwater and so on. Human skin will turn black when exposed to sunlight for too long so that humans are better able to face the sun. Human fine hair will stand up when the surrounding air temperature is low and human hair will turn white in old age or maybe other factors.

Examples of Morphological Adaptations in Plants

The lotus flower that grows and lives in water, adapts to the way its leaves are thin and wide so that it can float in the water. The water hyacinth plant, which is the same as the lotus, can live in water, adapting by having many roots whose function is to prevent it from tipping over when in water. Lotus flowers and water hyacinths are called hydrophytic plants because they live in water.

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