Brain Tumor Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Brain Tumor Definition, Reason, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention


A brain tumor is a mass or lump that grows abnormally in the brain. These lumps can be benign or malignant. The source can also come from the brain itself (primary tumor) or spread from other parts of the body (secondary tumor or metastasis).

Tumors that originate in the brain are grouped into several types, this grouping is based on the origin of the cells. Each type has its own pattern of development and treatment prognosis.

Although the cause is not known with certainty, there are several factors that can increase a person’s chances of developing a brain tumor in the future. These factors include:

  • Radiation exposure, for example, cancer patients who receive radiation therapy
  • There is a family history of brain tumors

Brain Tumor Symptoms

In general, symptoms that sufferers of brain tumors can experience are:

  • Headaches that are getting worse and more frequent
  • Unexplained nausea and vomiting
  • Visual impairment, such as double vision
  • Impaired movement of hands and feet
  • Speech disorder
  • Disturbance of consciousness
  • seizures
  • Hearing impairment

The specific types of complaints experienced can vary, depending on the location of the tumor, its size and type.

Brain Tumor Reason

Primary brain tumors occur when brain cells change their DNA and grow uncontrollably. While other cells die and regenerate, these cells stay alive so that they accumulate into a mass.

In adults, primary brain tumors are actually very rare. The cases that occur are mostly children spreading cancer from other parts of the body.

Various types of primary brain tumors, such as:

  • Glioma. These tumors originate from the brain cells themselves and the spinal cord. Includes astrocytoma, ependymoma, glioblastoma, oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.
  • Meningioma. Meningioma is a type of brain tumor whose cells originate from the membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord (meninges).
  • Acoustic neuromas (schwannomas). This type of tumor develops from cells whose function is to regulate the balance and the hearing center in the brain.
  • Pituitary adenomas that originate from cells of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. The presence of a tumor in this area can cause disruption of the hormones it produces.
  • Medulloblastomas. This type of tumor is most common in children and originates from cells located at the back of the brain or spinal cord.
  • Germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors originate from the same cells that grow into the testicles or ovaries when the baby is in the womb.
  • Craniopharyngiomas. This type of tumor grows from cells located close to the pituitary gland. Therefore, their enlargement can affect hormone production as well.

While secondary cancer tumors occur due to the spread of children from other parts of the body. For example in cases of breast cancer, colon, kidney, lung and melanoma of the skin.


To establish a diagnosis of a brain tumor, several supporting examinations are needed, such as:

  • A neurological examination which includes tests of vision, hearing, balance, strength and reflexes. A disturbance in one of the body’s work can reflect the area of ​​the brain where the tumor is located.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to localize the location of the tumor more precisely.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) to determine the location of the tumor or see other body parts that are suspected of being the main place of cancer (in secondary brain tumors).
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) to look for a cancer parent if a brain tumor is suspected as dispersion.
  • A brain biopsy is taking a small part of the brain to be examined under a microscope. This examination is done to determine the nature of the tumor, whether benign or malignant.

Brain Tumor Treatment

Treatment for brain tumor patients can vary, depending on:

  • Tipe tumor
  • Location
  • Size
  • How extensive is the cell abnormality
  • General health condition

Treatment options that can be given include:

  • Administering steroids to suppress the inflammatory response and swelling around the tumor.
  • The operation is performed when the border of the tumor can still be clearly seen.
  • Radiosurgery. Unlike surgery that is commonly performed, radiosurgery is a therapeutic option that uses focused radiation beams to kill cancer cells in certain areas.
  • Radiotherapy. This therapy is used to suppress the growth of cancer cells and slowly kill them.
  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is carried out using drugs that work to kill cancer cells, either by mouth or by inserting them through a vein.


The complications that occur depend on the area where the tumor is located. For example, in tumors that grow in the part of the brain that regulates memory, memory loss is a complication that can occur.


Because the cause of brain tumors is not known for certain, there is no specific prevention that can be done to avoid these brain tumors.

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