Brain Abscess Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Brain Abscess Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Brain Abscess Definition

Brain abscess is a disease, in which pus-filled sacs form in certain parts of the brain. This disease generally appears after a person suffers from an infection in his body and the germs that cause the infection spread to the brain. In addition to infection, accidents that result in head collisions also have the potential to cause brain abscesses.

Brain abscess is one of the emergency conditions in the field of nerves that must be handled optimally because it can threaten the life of the sufferer.

Brain Abscess Diagnosis

Determination of the diagnosis of brain abscess is done by medical interview. In patients with brain abscess, generally found a history of certain diseases that have the potential to spread to the brain or the presence of diseases that cause a decrease in the immune system, such as HIV. On physical examination, there are symptoms that point to abnormalities in the brain, such as weakness on one side of the body or impaired speech.

To confirm a brain abscess, a series of investigations will be performed, such as:

  • Blood test

The presence of infection in the body can be known from the results of blood tests

  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan otak

A brain CT scan is an imaging procedure that uses X-rays to reveal details inside the brain.

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

The purpose of MRI is actually the same as a CT – scan of the brain, but this method does not use X-rays but electromagnetic waves.

  • CT- guided aspiration

Using a CT – scan guide, the pus in the abscess is taken to examine the type of bacteria under a microscope.

Brain Abscess Reason

Various conditions can be behind the occurrence of a brain abscess, such as:

  • Infections around the head such as sinusitis, ear or oral cavity infections that spread to the brain
  • Infections in other parts of the body such as infections in the lungs which then spread to the cavity of the head and brain
  • An accident involving a head impact and causing a skull fracture. Germs and fungi that cause brain abscesses can enter through these cracks.

Brain Abscess Symptoms

Symptoms can appear immediately after the formation of a brain abscess or pause for a long time. Common symptoms include:

  • Severe headache that doesn’t go away with regular painkillers
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Weakness on one side of the body
  • Speaks unclearly or slurs
  • High fever >38 o C
  • Seizure
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stiff neck
  • Double vision

The symptoms experienced vary from one patient to another, depending on the part of the brain where the abscess is located. If the abscess is in the speech center in the brain, then speech disorders are the main symptom.

Brain Abscess Treatment

Treatment of a brain abscess must be carried out immediately. Brain abscess that is not treated immediately has the potential to cause blood circulation disorders due to pressure from the abscess mass. In addition, large brain abscesses are also at risk of rupture and result in the spread of pus that is difficult to remove.

To treat brain abscesses, various treatment modalities are carried out such as:

  • Medications: antibiotics or antifungals
  • Surgical evacuation of pus, either through a small hole made in the skull or major surgery of the cranium.

Brain Abscess Complications

If not treated optimally, brain abscess can lead to various complications, such as:

  • Permanent brain damage
  • Recurrent seizures and epilepsy
  • Meningitis or inflammation of the lining of the brain
  • Recurrent abscess

Brain Abscess Prevention

Brain abscess can be prevented by avoiding various risk factors. For someone with HIV, for example, taking antiretroviral (ARV) drugs regularly and avoiding transmission of the disease can be one way to prevent brain abscesses.

In cases of head trauma, surgery for fractures or fractures of the skull can help close the gaps that occur and have the potential for bacteria and fungi to enter.

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