Angina Pectoris Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Angina Pectoris Definition, Reason, Symptom, Treatment, Prevention

Angina Pectoris Definition

Angina pectoris is a type of heart disease caused by a lack of oxygen and blood supply to the heart muscle. Angina pectoris occurs due to blockage of the coronary arteries in the heart.

In general, there are two types of angina pectoris, namely:

  • Stable angina pectoris, namely angina pectoris that occurs due to chronic blockage of the coronary arteries. In this type, the sufferer usually complains of chest pain when the activity is too strenuous (eg exercising), and the chest pain will decrease if the sufferer rests.
  • Unstable angina pectoris, which is angina pectoris that occurs due to sudden blockage of the coronary arteries. In layman, this condition is often called a heart attack.

Symptoms include chest pain that occurs suddenly, does not improve even after resting, and does not even improve even after taking medication.

This paper will discuss stable angina pectoris.

Angina Pectoris Reason

Angina pectoris can be caused by various things, namely:

  • Exposure to cigarette smoke
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia)
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Severe anemia (hemoglobin less than 8 mg/dl)
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Arrhythmia (irregular heart rhythm)
  • There is a history of heart disease in the family

Angina Pectoris Diagnosis

At the initial examination, the doctor will conduct a complete interview and a thorough physical examination. After that, an examination of the heart record (electrocardiography) and a chest X-ray can be performed. However, sometimes the results of both examinations show normal results.

To confirm the presence or absence of angina pectoris, it is necessary to do an exercise stress testing or often called a treadmill test. In this examination, the patient will be fitted with a heart recording device while undergoing a treadmill.

The treadmill test will be carried out in stages – starting from walking, brisk walking, to running. At that time, the heart will be recorded continuously. The doctor will observe whether there are changes in the heart record or complaints of chest pain during exercise on a treadmill.

In addition, it is rarely necessary to perform an echocardiographic examination to determine the pumping function of the heart and the condition of the heart valves.

In cases of severe angina pectoris and does not improve with various drugs, sometimes it is necessary to perform coronary angiography, or commonly known as catheterization. In coronary angiography examination, a kind of camera will be inserted through the blood vessels to the heart. Then it will be seen how the anatomical structure of the heart’s blood vessels and whether there are blockages in it.

Angina Pectoris Symptoms

The main symptom of angina pectoris is chest pain. Chest pain is mainly felt on the left side or in the center of the chest. The pain sensation is like being pressed by a very heavy object, or like being squeezed, or like burning. Not only in the chest, pain can also be felt in the solar plexus, back, neck, shoulders, and lower jaw.

In angina pectoris, chest pain occurs after being triggered by strenuous activity (eg exercise), after eating, being cold, or experiencing excessive emotions. The pain usually lasts 1-5 minutes and gets better after resting or after taking nitroglycerin.

Angina Pectoris Treatment

There are two main treatments for angina pectoris, namely:

  • Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke (stop smoking and stay away from people who smoke)
  • Controlling diseases that trigger angina pectoris in the sufferer, such as hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, and obesity

Regarding cholesterol, patients who have angina pectoris are recommended to maintain low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of less than 70 mg/dl. This can be achieved by exercising 4-5 times per week for a minimum of 30 minutes each time you exercise, adjusting your diet by increasing the number of vegetables and fruits, and taking cholesterol-lowering drugs as directed by your doctor if necessary.

In addition, people with angina pectoris also need blood-thinning drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel to prevent blockages in the coronary arteries from getting worse.

If a patient with angina pectoris has hypertension, generally the antihypertensive drug that will be given by the doctor is an antihypertensive drug which is also useful for reducing the burden on the heart. For example, beta-blockers (propranolol, bisoprolol, atenolol, etc.), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril, ramipril, etc.), or calcium channel antagonists.

Revascularization therapy with stent placement on the heart or with bypass surgery is also sometimes needed, especially in the following conditions:

  • Completely or almost completely blocked blood vessels
  • Blood vessels that are blocked by more than one
  • Patients experience symptoms that are very disturbing even though they have been given various drugs by the doctor

Angina Pectoris Prevention

To prevent angina pectoris, do a healthy lifestyle in the form of:

  • Stay away from exposure to cigarette smoke
  • Maintain an ideal weight
  • Regular exercise 4-5 times per week
  • If you have hypertension, diabetes, or high cholesterol, take your medication regularly as directed by your doctor
    In this video Shomu Biology said to Know Angina pectoris types:

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