Anemia Definition, Reason, Diagnosis, Symptom, Treatment

Anemia is a condition in which a person does not have enough red blood cells to deliver oxygen

Anemia Definition

Anemia is a condition in which a person does not have enough red blood cells to deliver oxygen to various tissues in the body. Having anemia can make a person feel tired and weak.

There are different types of anemia, and each has a different cause. Anemia can be temporary or can persist for a long time, and has a degree of severity that varies from mild to severe. The presence of anemia can be caused by the presence of other underlying health conditions.

Treatment of anemia can vary, from taking supplements to undergoing certain medical procedures. Some types of anemia can be prevented by eating a healthy, varied and nutritious diet.

Anemia Reason

The human body produces three types of blood cells, namely white blood cells to fight infection, platelets to help blood clot, and red blood cells to deliver oxygen throughout the body. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color.

Hemoglobin makes red blood cells able to carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body and transports carbon dioxide from all parts of the body to the lungs so that it can be removed from the body.

Most blood cells, including red blood cells, are produced regularly in the bone marrow, which is a spongy consistency material found in the gaps of many large bones.

To produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, the body needs iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and various other nutrients from food consumed daily.

Anemia occurs when a person does not have enough red blood cells. This can happen when:

1. The body does not produce enough red blood cells
2. Bleeding, which causes a person to lose red blood cells faster than the number of red blood cells produced
3. The body destroys red blood cells

Types of Anemia

1. Iron deficiency anemia

This is the most common type of anemia worldwide. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by low levels of iron in the body.

Bone marrow requires iron to produce hemoglobin. Without adequate amounts of iron, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin to form red blood cells. Without iron supplementation, this type of anemia can occur in pregnant women.

In addition, iron deficiency anemia can also be caused by blood loss. For example due to heavy menstrual bleeding, ulcers, cancer, or regular use of certain drugs such as aspirin.

2. Certain vitamin deficiency anemia

In addition to iron, the body also needs folic acid and vitamin B12 to produce healthy red blood cells in sufficient quantities.

A diet that is low in these substances and several other important nutrients can cause the production of red blood cells to decrease. In addition, some people can take adequate amounts of vitamin B12, but the body cannot process the vitamin. This can lead to vitamin deficiency anemia, which is called pernicious anemia.

3. Anemia of chronic disease

Some diseases, such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, and so on, can affect the production of red blood cells.

4. Aplastic anemia

This rare and life-threatening anemia can occur when the body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells. Causes of aplastic anemia include infection, consumption of certain medications, autoimmune diseases, and exposure to toxic chemicals.

5. Anemia related to bone marrow disease

A range of diseases, such as leukemia and myelofibrosis, can cause anemia because they affect the production of blood cells in the bone marrow. The impact of the disease can vary from mild to life-threatening.

6. Hemolytic anemia

Anemia in this group can occur when red blood cells are destroyed more quickly than they are replaced by bone marrow.

Certain blood diseases can accelerate the destruction of red blood cells. Hemolytic anemia can be inherited or occur in adulthood.

7. Anemia see Sabit

This inherited anemia is a type of congenital hemolytic anemia. This condition is caused by defective hemoglobin, which makes red blood cells crescent-shaped.

These irregularly shaped cells die prematurely, which then leads to a chronic shortage of red blood cells.

Anemia Risk Factors

There are several factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing anemia, including:

  • Diets that are low in certain vitamins

Eating a diet that is consistently low in iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid can increase your risk of developing anemia.

  • Gastrointestinal disease

Having certain gastrointestinal diseases that affect the absorption of nutrients in the intestines can increase your risk of developing anemia.

  • Women who are not menopausal

In general, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of iron deficiency anemia than men and postmenopausal women. This is because menstruation can cause a decrease in the number of red blood cells.

  • Pregnant women who do not take folic acid

Pregnant women who do not take folic acid can have an increased risk of developing anemia.

  • Certain chronic conditions

A person with cancer, chronic kidney disease, or other chronic diseases may have a higher risk of developing anemia of chronic disease.

This condition can cause a shortage of red blood cells. Gradually, chronic bleeding in the body can deplete iron stores in the body, which then leads to iron deficiency anemia.

  • Family history

People with family members who have a history of inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia, may have an increased risk of developing the condition.

  • Other factors

A history of certain infections, blood diseases, autoimmune diseases, alcoholism, exposure to toxic chemicals, and use of certain drugs can affect red blood cell production and lead to anemia.

  • seniors

People over the age of 65 have a higher risk of developing anemia.

Anemia Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of anemia can vary, depending on the cause of the anemia. However, some of the signs and symptoms that can be observed in anemia include:

  • Feeling tired
  • Weakness
  • Pale or yellowish skin
  • Irregular heart rate
  • Hard to breathe
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Chest pain
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headache

At first, anemia can be very mild and have no signs or symptoms. However, as the severity of anemia increases, the signs and symptoms will become more visible.

Anemia Diagnosis

To determine the diagnosis of anemia, the doctor may conduct a medical interview regarding medical history and family history. In addition, it also performs a physical examination and recommends certain supporting examinations, such as:

  • General check-up

A complete blood count is generally intended to count the number of blood cells from a blood sample taken. To determine anemia, the doctor will observe the proportion of red blood cells in the blood (hematocrit) and blood hemoglobin levels.

  • Examination to determine the size and shape of red blood cells

The blood sample taken can be further evaluated for abnormal size, shape, or staining.

  • Additional diagnostic checks

In people who have been diagnosed with anemia, doctors may recommend additional tests to determine the underlying cause.

How to overcome

Treatment of anemia depends on the underlying cause. There are several types of treatment for anemia, including:

  • Iron deficiency anemia

Treatment for this type of anemia generally includes iron supplementation and dietary changes.

If the cause of iron deficiency anemia is blood loss, other than menstruation, the source of the bleeding should be investigated further and stopped.

  • Certain vitamin deficiency anemia

Treatment for folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency includes nutritional supplementation and adding these nutrients to the daily diet.

  • Anemia of chronic disease

In this type of anemia, treatment is focused on the underlying condition.

If symptoms worsen, blood transfusions or injections of synthetic erythropoietin (a hormone produced by the kidneys) can help stimulate red blood cell production and reduce fatigue.

  • Aplastic anemia

Treatment for this type of anemia may include blood transfusions to increase red blood cell levels.

If the bone marrow is impaired and cannot produce healthy blood cells, a bone marrow transplant may be required.

  • Anemia related to bone marrow disease

Treatment for this group of conditions may include medication, chemotherapy, or a bone marrow transplant.

  • Hemolytic anemia

Treating hemolytic anemia can be done in several ways, including avoiding the consumption of medications suspected of causing the condition, treating associated infections, and taking the necessary medications.

  • Anemia sell Sabit

Treatment for this type of anemia may include giving oxygen, pain medication, and oral and intravenous fluids, to reduce pain and prevent complications.

Doctors may also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplementation, and antibiotics if deemed necessary.

How to Prevent

Some types of anemia cannot be prevented. However, for some other types, some prevention strategies that can be applied are:

  • Eat a diet rich in vitamins and minerals

For example, iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemia can be avoided by eating a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and nutrients, including iron (meats, legumes, iron-fortified cereals, and leafy green vegetables), folic acid (fruits). , fruit juices, green vegetables, legumes, nuts, and whole grain products such as breads, cereals, pasta, and rice), vitamin B12 (meats, dairy products, fortified cereals, and soy products), and vitamin C (fruits). citrus, broccoli, tomatoes, melons, and strawberries).

  • Considering genetic counseling

In people who have a family history of inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia, discussing the risks for developing and reducing the condition with a doctor or genetic counselor may be an option.

  • Avoid contracting malaria

Anemia can be one of the complications of malaria. A person planning to travel to an area where malaria is common is advised to discuss with a doctor the need to take preventive medicine and what can be done to limit exposure to mosquitoes.

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